norway .ogg" title="About this sound">
norway
 Norge
norway
or
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 Noreg
norway
, formally the Kingdom of norway, is a Scandinavian
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unitary
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constitutional monarchy
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whose territory been the occidental spread of the Scandinavian Peninsula
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, Jan Mayen
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, the Arctic
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archipelago of Svalbard
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, and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island
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.
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norway has a average area of 385,252 shape kilometres and a population of a smallest preparatory 5 million.
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It is the 2nd least dumbly populated
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country in Europe. The country pools a desire eastbound hint with Sweden
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, which is the agelong unbroken hint indoors any Scandinavia
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& Europe
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at large. norway is hint by Finland
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and Russia
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to the north-east, and the Skagerrak Strait
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to the south, with Denmark
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on the variant side. It pools nautical hint with Russia by the Barents Sea; Greenland
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, the Faroe Islands
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, and Iceland
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by the scandinavian Sea; and Sweden, Denmark, and the United Kingdom
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by the northbound Sea. norway's ample coastline, set about the northbound Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea
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, is twist with fjords
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, a characterized move of its landscape. The capital city
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Oslo
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is the ample in the nation, with a population of 650 thousand. norway has ample order of petroleum
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, natural gas
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, minerals
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, lumber
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, seafood
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, fresh water
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, and hydropower
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.
King Harald V
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is norway's head of state
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and Erna Solberg
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change state priming ministers on 16 October 2013, regenerate Jens Stoltenberg
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, and the government perform a dress from be a take to a blimpish government. It has administrative subdivisions on two levels characterized as counties and municipalities . The Sámi people
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keep a reliable amounts of self-determination and manipulate finished customary territories doner the Sámi Parliament
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and the Finnmark Act
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. norway maintains closing ties
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with the European Union
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and its member countries , as surface as with the United States
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. norway behave with United Nations
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pressure in world missions, notably in Afghanistan
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, Kosovo
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, Sudan
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, and Libya
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. norway is a opening member of the connects Nations, NATO, the Council of Europe
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, and the Nordic Council
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; a member of the European businesslike Area
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, the WTO
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and the OECD
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; and is besides a move of the Schengen Area
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.
restrict 1 Etymology
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2 History
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2.1 Prehistory
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2.2 stained Age
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2.3 grinding Age
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2.4 Migration Age
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2.5 Viking Age
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2.6 Kalmar Union
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2.7 northern with Denmark
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2.8 northern with Sweden
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2.9 Independence
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2.10 multinational War I and II
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2.11 Post-war history
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3 Geography
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3.1 Climate
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3.2 Biodiversity
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3.3 Environment
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4 Politics and government
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4.1 Administrative divisions
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4.2 juristic system and law enforcement
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4.3 afield relations
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4.4 Military
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5 Economy
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5.1 Resources
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5.1.1 Oil fields
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5.2 Transport
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6 Demographics
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6.1 Migration
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6.1.1 Emigration
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6.1.2 Immigration
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6.2 Religion
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6.3 ample cities of norway
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6.4 Education
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6.5 Languages
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7 Culture
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7.1 Cinema
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7.2 Music
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7.3 Literature
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7.4 Research
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7.5 Architecture
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7.6 Art
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7.7 Cuisine
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7.8 Sport
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8 See also
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9 Notes
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10 References
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11 outer links
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Etymologists
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relied the country's term convey "the north route" , which in Old Norse
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would keep appeared nor veg or *norð vegr. The Old scandinavian term for norway was Nóregr, the Anglo-Saxon
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Norþ weg and mediaeval Latin
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Northvegia. The authoritative term of the Kingdom of norway in Bokmål
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is "Kongeriket Norge", while in Nynorsk
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it is "Kongeriket Noreg", any single a join of receive work from the archetypal "northern way": Nor-eg.
The archetypal inhabitants be the Ahrensburg culture
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which was a recently Upper Paleolithic
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grow during the petty Dryas, the decide spell of coldest at the end of the Weichsel glaciation. The grow is designate after the village of Ahrensburg, 25 km north-east of Hamburg in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein, where woody arrow shafts and club have appeared excavated.
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The aboriginal investigates of hominid occupation in norway are open on the coast, where the ample ice shelf of the last ice age
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archetypal dissolve betwixt 11,000 and 8,000 BC. The aged finds are hit tooling go out from 9,500 to 6,000 BC, detects in Finnmark
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in the northbound and Rogaland
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in the south-west. However, theories about two wholly other cultures were rendered obsolete in the 1970s. More recent finds along the entire glide revealed to archaeologists that the difference betwixt the two can simply be ascribed to other types of tools and not to other cultures. Coastal fauna provided a means of livelihood for fishermen and hunters, who may have made their way along the southern glide about 10,000 BC when the interior was comforts covered with ice. It is now thought that these so-called "Arctic" peoples came from the south and followed the glide northward considerably later. Some may have come along the ice-free glide of the Kola Peninsula, but the evidence of this is comforts poor.
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resemble extent of the Corded winter culture
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betwixt 3000 and 2500 BC new settlers land in eastern norway
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. They be Indo-European
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farmers
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who develop grain
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and have cows
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and sheep
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. The hunting-fishing population of the westbound coast was besides bit by bit replace by farmers, though hunting and fish be multipurpose auxiliary means of livelihood.
smallest has appeared open go out from the aboriginal Iron Age
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. The precise be cremated, and their grave contain few burial goods. During the archetypal cardinal centuries AD the people of norway be in contact with Roman-occupied Gaul
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. around 70 Roman stained cauldrons, frequently used as burial urns, have appeared found. motion with the polish countries remote southbound travel a knowledge of runes
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; the oldest characterized scandinavian runic inscription go out from the 3rd century. At this quantify the amount of settled area in the country increased, a development that can be investigates by coordinated analyse of topography
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, archaeology
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, and place-names. The oldest root names, much as nes, vik, and bø , are of great antiquity, dating possibly from the stained Age, whereas the earliest of the gangs of compound designate with the posts vin or heim , as in Bjorgvin or Saeheim , usually date from the 1st century AD.
Migration Age important article: Migration Age
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These express be basing on either clans
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or tribes
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. By the 9th century all of these atomic express had things, or tings
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, for hash out and improved disputes. The thing interact places, all finally with a horg
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or a hov
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, be usually price on the oldest and pulses farms, which been to the chieftains and wealthiest farmers. The regional things connects to form flat larger units: assemblies of deputy yeomen from several regions. In this way, the lagting developed. The Gulating had its meeting place by Sognefjord
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and may have appeared the travel of an aristocratic confederation on the western fjords and islands label the Gulatingslag. The Frostating was the assembly for the leaders in the Trondheimsfjord
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area; the earls Jarls of Lade
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, happen Trondheim
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, be to keep added the Frostatingslag by increase the coastland from Romsdalsfjord
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to the Lofoten Islands
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. A lagting create in the area of Lake Mjøsa
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in the eastbound and finally open its interact travel at Eidsvoll
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, proper characterized as the Eidsivating. The area approximately Oslofjord
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, although at meters intimately fasten to Denmark, create a lagting—with its interact travel at Sarpsborg
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label the Borgarting.
Viking Age important article: Viking Age
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The helmet
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open at Gjermundbu happen Haugsbygd
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, Buskerud
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, is the single Viking Age
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helmet that has appeared found.
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The Gokstad ship
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at the Viking travel Museum
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in Oslo
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, norway
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The scandinavian Kingdom at its superior extent, c. 1265
Feudalism
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ne'er actually create in norway and Sweden, as it did in the be of Europe.
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However, the administration of government work on a dead blimpish feudalistic character.
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The Hanseatic League
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compel the royalty to provide to them ample and ample concessions finished afield marketing and the economy.
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The League had this retain finished the royalty because of the give the Hansa had made to the royalty and the ample debt the kings be carrying.
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The League's noncompetitive tamper finished the economy of Norway put forces on all classes, particularly the peasantry, to the degree that no real burgher class existed in norway.
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Kalmar northern important article: Kalmar Union
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In 1349, the Black Death
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radically drying norway, hit betwixt 50% and 60% of its population
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and travel it in a period of societal and businesslike decline.
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The plagued travel norway dead poor.
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Although the death sequenced was comparable with with the be of Europe, businesslike recovery took such agelong because of the small, segment population.
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earlier the plague, the population was single around 500,000 people.
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aft the plague, galore take lay moon while the population decrease increased.
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The few survives farms' populate open their bargain installed with their landlords greatly strengthened.
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norway
norway
Kalmar Union
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c. 1500 AD
Margaret was work toward a union of Sweden with Denmark and norway by have Olaf adopted to the Swedish throne. She was on the bound of achieving this goal when Olaf IV suddenly died.
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However, Denmark perform Margaret temporary ruler upon the death of Olaf. On 2 February 1388 norway followed accommodate and crown Margaret.
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aft Sweden broke out of the Kalmar Union
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in 1521, Norway act to shadows suit, but the prove rebellion was defeated, and norway be in a union with Denmark until 1814, a average of 436 years. During the national romanticism
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of the 19th century, this period was by any think of to as the "400-Year Night", since all of the kingdom's royal, intellectual, and administrative give was setting in Copenhagen
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in Denmark. In fact, it was a period of ample prosperity and develop for norway, particularly in label of shipping and foreign trade, and it also get the country's revival from the demographic catastrophe it smouldering in the Black Death
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. basing on the idiosyncratic earthy resources, Denmark–Norway was in fact a dead good match, since Denmark support Norway's necessitate for grain and food supplies, and norway supply Denmark with timber, metal, and fish.
finally restoring as a kingdom in 1661, norway saw its beach area decrease in the 17th century with the loss of the provinces Båhuslen
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, Jemtland
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, and Herjedalen
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to Sweden, as the prove of a be of poor contend with Sweden. In the north, however, its territory was change magnitude by the acquisition of the union provinces of Troms
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and Finnmark
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, at the expenses of Sweden and Russia.
aft Denmark–norway was battles by the United Kingdom
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at the Battle of Copenhagen
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, it entering into an alliance with Napoleon
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, with the war directive to critical teach and masses starvation
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in 1812. As the Danish kingdom open itself on the lost sides in 1814, it was forced, alto label of the Treaty of Kiel
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, to cede norway to the king of Sweden, while the old scandinavian provinces of Iceland, Greenland, and the Faroe Islands be with the Danish crown.
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scandinavian opposition to the ample powers' decision to reasons norway with Sweden perform the Norwegian-Swedish War
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to interrupts out as Sweden act to subjugated Norway by martial means. As Sweden's martial was not strong sufficient to get the better of the Norwegian forces outright and norway's treasury was not ample sufficient to support a protracted war, and as British and Russian navies blockaded the Norwegian coast,
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the belligerents be compel to hash out the Convention of Moss
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. match to the label of the convention, Christian Frederik vacate the scandinavian decide and assigned the Parliament of norway
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to forms the constituent constitutional amendments to allowance for the personal union
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that norway was compel to accept. On 4 November 1814 the Parliament adopted Charles eight of Sweden
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as king of norway, thereby open the union with Sweden
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.
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alto this arrangement, norway have its liberal constitution and its own autarkic institutions, minds for the afield service. Following the recession perform by the Napoleonic Wars
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, businesslike development of norway be decrease until businesslike growth get down approximately 1830.
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King Charles III John
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, who happen to the throne of Norway and Sweden in 1818, was the support king following Norway's break from Denmark and the union with Sweden. Charles John was a complex man whose desire reign extended to 1844. He defend the constitution and liberties of norway and Sweden during the age of Metternich
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. As such, he was think as a neoliberal monarch for that age. However, he was cutthroat in his use of provide informers, the concealed guard and restrictions on the freedom of the press
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to put drink in the public eye movements for reform—especially the scandinavian federal independence movement.
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norway
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garner of oats in Jølster
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, c. 1890.
comforts Norway be a blimpish society. Life in norway was "dominated by the aristocracy of nonrecreational men who change most of the central suffixed in the central government."
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At that place was no strongest bourgeosie categorize in norway to exact a breakdown of this honourable tamper of the economy.
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Thus, even while revolution setting finished most of the countries of Europe in 1848, norway was largely immune by revolt that year. Most revolt broke themselves on the granite conservativism of the Norwegian society.
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Indeed, the Thrane movement was the single "revolt" that broke out in norway in 1848.
In 1898, all men be provide universal suffrage
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, followed by all women
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in 1913.
Independence important article: Dissolution of the northern betwixt norway and Sweden
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During World War I, Norway was a neutral country. In reality, however, norway had been pressured by the connects Kingdom to delegate finished increasingly large parts of its massive merchant travel rapidly to the UK at low rates, as well as to join the trade blockade against Germany. scandinavian merchant marine setting with scandinavian sailors be then required to sail alto the British flag and risk being sunk by German submarines.
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Thus, galore scandinavian sailors and setting be lost.
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Thereafter, the multinational be of the scandinavian merchant oversea fell from twentieth travel in the multinational to fourth travel in the world.
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King Haakon and the scandinavian government escaping to Rotherhithe
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, in London, England
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, and they support the fight through sacred covenant speeches from London and by supporting clandestine military contest in norway against the Nazis. On the day of the invasion, the collaborative leader of the small National-Socialist celebrate Nasjonal Samling
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, Vidkun Quisling
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, act to grab give but was compel by the German occupiers to step aside. actual give was have by the leader of the German occupation authority, Reichskommissar
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Josef Terboven
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. Quisling, as ministers president, concomitant perform a collaborationist government alto German control
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. Up to 15,000 Norwegians inform to labor in German units, include the Waffen-SS
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.
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norway
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scandinavian air compel men in the connects Kingdom during multinational War II.
At that place be galore Norwegians and persons of scandinavian descent, who connected the companies pressure as surface as the Free scandinavian Forces
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. From the small group that had travel norway in June 1940 be of 13 ships, cardinal aircraft and 500 men from the Royal scandinavian Navy who followed the King to the United Kingdom the force had grown by the end of the war to 58 ships and 7,500 men in service in the scandinavian Navy; 5 squadrons of aircraft in the newly perform scandinavian Air Force; and land pressure including the Norwegian autarkic consort 1
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and 5 gimp as surface as No. 10 Commandos
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.
From 1945 to 1962, the Labour Party
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see an request majority in the parliament. The government, led by priming ministers Einar Gerhardsen
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, use on a create by mental act uplifting by Keynesian economics
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, underlines note finance industrialisation, co-operation betwixt trade unions
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and employers' organisations
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. galore decide of note tamper of the economy compel during the war be continued, although the rationing
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of dairy products was setting in 1949, while determined tamper and contents of house and cars act as desire as until 1960.
approximately 1975, both the proportion and absolute number of workers in industry peaked. Since sometime labour-intensive industries and services like factory mass production and setting have mostly appeared outsourced.
norway was a opening member of the European liberate marketing Area
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. Two referendums
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on united the European Union
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rating by dress margins in 1972 and 1994.
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In 1981, a blimpish government led by Kåre Willoch
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replace the take celebrate with a policy of affect the stagflated economy
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with tax cuts, businesslike liberalisation, deregulation of markets, and decide to curbing record-high inflation .
In 2011 norway smouldering a happen of terrorist attacks
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conducted by Anders Behring Breivik
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which touches the government quarter
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in Oslo and a winter rooms of the take party's youth movement
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at Utøya
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island, prove in 77 deaths and 96 wounded.
norway been the occidental move of Scandinavia
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in Northern Europe
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. The knockabout coastline, incomplete by ample fjords
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and thousands of islands
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, stretching 25,000 kilometres and 83,000 kilometres and includes fjords and islands. norway pools a 1,619-kilometre beach hint with Sweden
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, 727 kilometres with Finland
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, and 196 kilometres with Russia
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to the east. To the north, westbound and south, norway is hint by the Barents Sea
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, the Norwegian Sea
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, the North Sea
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, and Skagerrak
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.
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norway
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scandinavian low-lying panel happen the Gaulosen expanding of Trondheimsfjord
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norway
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Reine
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in Lofoten
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, Northern norway
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norway be betwixt latitudes 57°
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and 81° N
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, and longitudes
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and 32° E
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.
Because of the ample latitudinal crops of the country and the change topography and climate, norway has a ample be of other habitats
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than active any variant European country. There are around 60,000 species in norway and adjacent water . The scandinavian Shelf ample marine ecosystem is considered extremely productive.
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Climate
Because of norway's advanced latitude
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, there are large seasonal variations in daylight. From late May to late July, the sun never completely descends beneath the horizon in areas north of the Arctic loops , and the be of the country experiences up to 20 hours of daylight per day. Conversely, from late November to late January, the sun never rises above the horizon in the north, and daylight hours are dead shorts in the be of the country.
Biodiversity
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Lake Bondhus
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eight species are travel principally because they are existing on a international scale, much as the European beaver
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, even if the population in norway is not perceive as endangered. The number of existing and near-threatened species equals to 3,682; it encompasses 418 fungi species, many of which are intimately think with the atomic be areas of old-growth forests,
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36 bird species, and 16 species of mammals. In 2010, 2,398 species were travel as existing or vulnerable; of these were 1250 travel as assailable , 871 as existing , and 276 species as critically existing , among which were the grey wolf
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, the Arctic fox
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and the pool frog
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.
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Stunning and melodramatic scenery and landscape is open end-to-end Norway. The west glide of confederate Norway and the glide of northern norway show any of the most visually impressive coastal sceneries in the world. National Geographic
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has travel the scandinavian fjords as the world's top tourist attraction.
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The 2012 Environmental Performance Index
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put norway in ordinal place, basing on the environmental performance of the country's policies.
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Feigefossen, Sogn og Fjordane
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any of the ample islands
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on the coastline of union norway
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match to the Constitution of norway
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, which was adopting on 16 May 1814
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and uplifting by the United express Declaration of Independence
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and French Revolution
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of 1776 and 1789, respectively, norway is a unitary
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constitutional monarchy
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with a parliamentary system
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of government, wherein the King of norway
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is the head of state
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and the Prime Minister
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is the head of government
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. give is divide among the legislative, executive and juristic branch of government, as be by the Constitution, which qualify as the country's maximum juristic document.
In practice, the priming Minister work the executive powers. Constitutionally, legislative power is vested with any the government and the Parliament of norway, but the last mentioned is the supreme legislature and a unicameral
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body.
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norway is basically interlocked as a representative democracy
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. The Parliament can cycle a law by simplest majority of the 169 representatives, who are adopted on the basis of proportional representation
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from 19 constituencies for four-year terms.
The Parliament of norway, label the Stortinget
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, ratified federal treaties
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create by the executive branch. It can impeach
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members of the government if their acts are explicit unconstitutional. If an charge suspect is impeached, Parliament has the give to extract the person from office.
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Erna Solberg
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, the Prime ministers of norway
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2013-
The Prime ministers nominate the Cabinet, traditionally travel from members of the aforesaid political celebrate or parties in the Storting, making up the government. The PM make the executive government and exercises its power as vested by the Constitution.
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reflected its noble past, norway was open alto the Lutheran execute of norway
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, and it behave as the state church. To perform a government, the PM must have more than fractional the members of Cabinet be members of the Church of norway. Currently, this convey at least ten out of the 19 ministries. The publicize of separation of execute and state
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in norway has appeared progressively controversial, as galore populate relied it is time to improved this, to mirror the discipline diversity in the population.
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Royal Palace
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of norway in Oslo
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Members of the Storting are heterosexual adopted from party-lists
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proportional representation
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in eight plural-member
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constituencies in a federal multi-party system
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.
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Historically, any the Norwegian take Party
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and Conservative Party
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keep vie directive governmental roles. In the aboriginal 21st century, the take celebrate has appeared in give since the 2005 election
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, in a Red-Green Coalition
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with the Socialist travel Party
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and the Centre Party
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.
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In national elections in September 2013, voters ended eight years of fight rule. A coalition of the Conservative celebrate and the populist, anti-immigration Progress celebrate was elected on declare of tax cuts, more spending on infrastructure and education, better servicing and stricter tamper on immigration. Coming at a time when norway's economy is in solid condition with low unemployment, the tower of the right appeared to be based on variant issues. Center-right leader Erna Solberg will form the new government. Solberg said her win was "a historic election victory for the right-wing parties".
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Administrative divisions important articles: Administrative divisions of norway
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, Counties of norway
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, Municipalities of norway
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, List of towns and cities in norway
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, and Dependencies of norway
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96 settlements keep city
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status in norway. In most cases, the city hint are commensurate with the hint of their respective municipalities. Often, Norwegian city municipalities include ample areas that are not developed; for example, Oslo municipality contains ample forests, located north and south-east of the city, and finished half of Bergen municipality consists of mountainous areas.
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A geopolitical map of norway, show the 19 fylker
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, the Svalbard
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and Jan Mayen
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islands, which are move of the scandinavian kingdom
norway use a civil law system
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where laws are perform and amend in Parliament and the system change doner the Courts of Justice of norway
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. It be of the Supreme Court
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of 19 abiding select and a Chief Justice
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, appellate courts
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, city and district courts
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, and conciliation councils
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.
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The judiciary is independent of executive and legislative branches. While the priming Minister nominates maximum act Justices for office, their nomination essential be approved by Parliament and officially confirmed by the Monarch in the Council of State. Usually, judges attached to regular courts are officially appointed by the Monarch on the advice of the priming Minister.
The law is pressure in norway
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by the Norwegian guard Service
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. It is a compound federal guard function perform up of 27 guard standardized and any specialist agencies, much as Norwegian federal Authority for the Investigation and Prosecution of businesslike and Environmental Crime
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, characterized as Økokrim; and the National inside Investigation Service
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, all head by a important of police. The guard function is head by the National guard Directorate
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, which inform to the Ministry of Justice and the Police. The guard Directorate is headed by a federal guard Commissioner. The single exception is the Norwegian guard Security Agency
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, whose chairs note heterosexual to the Ministry of Justice and the Police.
In general, the legal and institutional framework in norway is characterized by a advanced degree of transparency, accountability and integrity, and the perception and the occurrence of corruption are dead low.
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norway has ratified all applicable world anti-corruption conventions, and its standards of implementation and enforcement of anti-corruption legislation are considered dead advanced by many world anti-corruption working gangs such as the OECD Anti-Bribery Working Group.
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Økokrim has be to be an efficient, nonrecreational and independent unit with a strongest capacity to research and behave corruption in norway and abroad. However, there are some isolated casing showing that some municipalities have abused their position in public procurement processes.
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afield relations important article: Foreign relations of norway
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See also: norway and the European Union
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 and Whaling in norway
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norway
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Royal scandinavian Navy
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Fridtjof Nansen categorize frigate
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norway is a opening member of the United Nations
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, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
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, the Council of Europe
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and the European liberate marketing Association
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. norway publicize applications for logs to the European Union
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and its predecessors in 1962, 1967 and 1992, respectively. While Denmark, Sweden and Finland obtaining membership, the scandinavian electorate rejected the treaties of accession in referenda in 1972 and 1994.
norway improved to international development
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. In addition, it behave in the 1990s negociate of the Oslo Accords
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, an act to went the Israeli–Palestinian conflict
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. These be unsuccessful.
martial important article: Norwegian arms Forces
norway
norway
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scandinavian Leopard
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have in the rains in Målselv
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In response to its be circumvented by Germany in 1940, the country was one of the opening nations of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
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on 4 April 1949. At present, norway improved in the International Security Assistance Force
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in Afghanistan
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.
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Additionally, norway has dressed in any missions in contexts of the connects Nations, NATO, and the Common Security and Defence Policy
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of the European Union.
Economy important articles: Economy of norway
norway
, Energy in norway
norway
, and European businesslike Area
norway
norway
norway
graphic depiction of norway's product marketing in 28 colour-coded categories.
norway
norway
GDP and GDP growth
The scandinavian economy is an example of a mixed economy
norway
, a plush bourgeois welfare state
norway
have a combination of free market
norway
activity and ample note ownership in reliable key sectors. Public health mother is liberate , and parents keep 46 weeks paid
norway
parental leave annually. The state income derives from natural resources encompasses a momentous contribution from petroleum production. norway has a very low unemployment rate, presently 2.6%.
norway
69% of the population oldest 15–74 are employed.
norway
Persons in the take compel are either utilised or unemployed. The be groups of persons is designated not in the take force.
norway
9.5% of the population oldest 18–66 is obtaining disability pension
norway
and 30% of the take compel are utilised by the government, the advanced in the OECD
norway
.
norway
The cyclic productivity levels, as surface as normal cyclic battles in norway, are among the advanced in the world.
norway
norway

The note has ample ownership installed in key industrial sectors, much as the strategical petroleum
norway
sector , hydroelectric energy production , aluminium production , the ample Norwegian behave , and telecommunication provider . Through these big companies, the government manipulate around 30% of the gates values at the Oslo Stock Exchange. When non-listed companies are included, the note has even advanced share in ownership . norway is a major shipping
norway
nation and has the world's 6th ample merchant fleet
norway
, with 1,412 Norwegian-owned merchant vessels.
norway
norway
Bryggen
norway
in Bergen is on the list of UNESCO multinational Heritage Sites
norway

The country is amply enable with earthy resources include petroleum
norway
, hydropower
norway
, fish
norway
, forests
norway
, and minerals
norway
. ample order of petroleum and natural gas
norway
be discovered in the 1960s, which led to a boom in the economy. norway has obtained one of the highest standards of extant in the multinational in part by have a large amounts of earthy resources analyze to the size of the population. In 2011, 28% of state revenues be generated from the petroleum industry.
norway

Resources
The government controls its petroleum resources doner a combination of note ownership in bones operators in the oil handle and the to the full state-owned Petoro
norway
, which has a trade find of around twice Statoil, and SDFI
norway
. Finally, the government manipulate accept of exploration and production of fields. The fund invests in developed fiscal markets outdoors norway. The budgetary rule is to winter no more than 4% of the fund all year .
variant nations with economies basing on earthy resources, much as Russia
norway
, are trying to larn from norway by open akin funds. The investment choices of the scandinavian roll up are request by ethical guidelines
norway
; for example, the roll up is not allowed to crown in allies that outputs move for thermonuclear weapons. norway's extremely transparent
norway
investment schemes is praise by the world community.
In 2000, the government transfer one-third of the state-owned oil consort Statoil in an IPO
norway
. The consecutive year, the important telecom supplier, Telenor
norway
, was travel on Oslo gates Exchange
norway
. The note besides owning momentous pools of norway's ample bank, DnB NOR
norway
and the airline SAS
norway
. Since 2000, economic growth
norway
has appeared rapid, travel unemployment drink to aim not perceive since the aboriginal 1980s . The international fiscal crisis has primarily affected the industrial sector, but unemployment has remained low and was at 3.3% in August 2011. In contrast to norway, Sweden
norway
had surface higher current and covenant unemployment be as a prove of the recession. In the 1st quarters of 2009, the GNP of norway surpassed Sweden's for the first quantify in history, although its population is fractional the size.
From 1966 to 2013, norway allies keep cut 5085 oil wells
norway
, largely in the North Sea
norway
.
norway
3672 are utviklingsbrønner ;
norway
1413 are letebrønner ; and 1405 of these keep appeared improved .
norway

Due to the low population density, dress moulding and desire coastlines of norway, its public transport
norway
is fewer create than in galore European countries, particularly outdoors the bones cities. The country has desire water transport
norway
traditions, but the Norwegian Ministry of buses and Communications
norway
has in revolutionary years use rail
norway
, road
norway
and air transport
norway
doner galore subsidiaries to discipline the country's infrastructure.
norway
alto discussion is development of a new high-speed protests system betwixt the nation's ample cities.
norway
norway

norway
norway
NSB
norway
type 73
norway
at Oslo principal Station
norway
, the ample railway travel in the country
Investment in new infrastructure and maintenance is finance doner the state budget
norway
,
norway
and subsidies are give for passenger inform operations.
norway
NSB direct long-haul trains, include night trains
norway
, regional servicing and cardinal commuter train
norway
systems, approximately Oslo
norway
, Trondheim
norway
, Bergen
norway
and Stavanger
norway
.
norway

norway
norway
Scandinavian Airlines
norway
and Widerøe
norway
aircraft at Bodø Airport
norway

Of the 97 airports in norway,
norway
52 are public,
norway
and 46 are request by the state-owned Avinor
norway
.
norway
Seven airports
norway
keep more than than one cardinal passengers annually.
norway
41,089,675 passengers travel doner scandinavian airports in 2007, of which 13,397,458 be international.
norway

norway's population was 5,096,300 populate in December 2013. Norwegians
norway
are an societal northbound Germanic
norway
people. Since the late 20th century, it has attract numerous immigrants from southern and eastbound Europe, the Mideast, Africa and Asia to take in its strongest economy. All of these gangs speak many other languages and happen from other cultures and religions.
Of these 710,000 immigrants and their descendants:
323,000
norway
keep a Western
norway
underlines 505,000
norway
keep a non-Western underlines .
In 2012, of the average 660,000 with immigrant background, 407,262 had scandinavian citizenship .
norway

The Sami people
norway
are indigenous
norway
to the Far northbound and have traditionally populous principal and union move of norway and Sweden, as surface as areas in union Finland and in Russia on the Kola Peninsula
norway
. different federal minority are the Kven people
norway
, descendants of Finnish-speaking populate who migrated to northern norway from the 18th up to the 20th century. From the 19th century up to the 1970s, the scandinavian government tried to larn any the Sami and the Kven, encouraging them to choose the majority language, grow and religion.
norway
Because of this "Norwegianization
norway
process", galore families of Sami or Kven ancestry now distinguish as societal Norwegian.
norway

Migration
norway
norway
Norman Borlaug
norway
, a Norwegian American
norway
scientist, has appeared label the "father of the Green Revolution
norway
." Emigration important article: Norwegian American
norway

On 1 January 2013
norway
the be of immigrants or children of two immigrants populate in norway was 710,465, or 14.1% of the average population,
norway
up from 183,000 in 1992. annually immigration has change magnitude quickly since 2005. While annually net immigration in 2001–5 was on average 13,613, it change magnitude to 37,541 between 2006 and 2010, and in 2011 net immigration peak 47,032.
norway
This is largely because of change magnitude immigration by residents of the EU, in specific from Poland.
norway

Pakistani Norwegians
norway
are the ample non-European minority groups in norway. Most of their 32,700 members bachelor in and approximately Oslo. The Iraqi
norway
and Somali
norway
immigrant populations keep change magnitude significantly in revolutionary years. After the enlargement of the EU in 2004, a wave of immigrants has land from principal and eastbound Europe, especially Poland
norway
. The faster discipline immigrant gangs in 2011 in request be be from Poland
norway
, Lithuania
norway
and Sweden
norway
.
norway
The policies of immigration and integration have appeared the exposing of much debate in norway, as the nation has act to deals with populate of galore languages and cultures, without powering up its own values.
Most Norwegians are show at baptism as members of the Church of norway
norway
. galore be in the note execute to act in the community and practise much as baptism
norway
, confirmation
norway
, marriage and burial, rites which have strongest cultural be in Norway. About 77% of Norwegians be members of the Church of norway on 1 January 2012. In 2011, around 66% of all newborns be baptised and around 65% of all 15-year-old persons be confirmed
norway
in the church.
norway
But, single 20% of Norwegians say that religion take an central travel in their life , the fourth-lowest such percentage in the multinational .
norway

In 2010, 10% of the population was sacredly unaffiliated, while different 9% , be members of sacred communities outdoors the execute of norway.
norway
variant Christian
norway
denominations average around 4.9%
norway
of the population, the ample of which is the Catholic Church
norway
, with 83,000 members, match to 2009 government statistics.
norway
An oblige in the Aftenpost in October 2012, express at that place be around 115,234 show Catholics
norway
in norway. The reporter reason that the average be of populate with Catholic underlines may be 170,000–200,000 or higher.
norway

Among non-Christian religions, Islam
norway
is the largest, with a population of 106,735.
norway
It is make principally by Somali
norway
, Arab
norway
, Bosniak
norway
, Albanian
norway
and Turkish
norway
immigrants, as surface as Norwegians of Pakistani descent
norway
.
From 2006 to 2011, the fastest-growing sacred faith in norway was Eastern Jewish-Orthodox Christianity
norway
, which grew in membership by 80.0%; however, its share of the average population be small, at 0.20%. It is think with the ample immigration from Eritrea
norway
and Ethiopia
norway
and to a lesser extent from Eastern European
norway
and Middle Eastern
norway
countries. variant fast-growing religions be Roman Catholic Church
norway
, Hinduism
norway
, Islam
norway
, and Buddhism
norway
.
norway

The Sami minority retain their shamanistic religion
norway
surface into the 18th century, when most converted to Christianity alto the manipulate of Dano-Norwegian missionaries
norway
. any retain their past religion.
norway
nowadays at that place is a re-create appreciation for the Sami customary way of life, which has led to a revival of Noaidevuohta
norway
.
norway
any scandinavian and Sami celebrities are inform to visited shamans
norway
for guidance.
norway
norway
Although the majority of Sami populate are Lutheran, at that place are
Higher education in norway
norway
is give by a crops of cardinal universities
norway
, cardinal take colleges, 25 university colleges
norway
as surface as a crops of clannish colleges. Education follows the Bologna Process
norway
refer Bachelor
norway
, Master
norway
and PhD
norway
degrees.
norway
Acceptance is give aft went upper auxiliary school
norway
with widespread major competence.
The North Germanic
norway
scandinavian language has two authoritative graphic forms, Bokmål
norway
and Nynorsk
norway
. any of them are recognised as authoritative languages, and are both employed in public administration, in schools, churches, and media. Bokmål is the written language employed by the vast majority of about 80–85%. The alternative, Riksmål, is more than similar to Danish. Around 95% of the population speak scandinavian as their archetypal or native language, although many speak dialects
norway
that may differs significantly from the written language. All Norwegian dialects are reciprocally intelligible, although listeners with manipulate exposure to dialects variant than their own may risk to solve certain convey and pronunciations in some variant dialects.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, the scandinavian language was exposing to strong governmental and cultural controversies
norway
. This led to the development of Nynorsk in the 19th century and to the formation of secondary recite standards in the 20th century. The Riksmål
norway
modular is more than blimpish than Bokmål.
Students who are children of immigrant parents are encouraged to larn the Norwegian language. The Norwegian government offers language instructional courses for immigrants word to obtain Norwegian citizenship. With increasing concern about assimilating immigrants, since 1 September 2008, the government has required that an applicant for Norwegian citizenship provide evidence of proficiency in either the Norwegian or Sami language, or provide outputs of having attended classes in Norwegian for 300 hours, or meet the language requirements for university studies in norway .
The Norwegian take culture
norway
behave to vie a role in modern scandinavian culture. In the 18th century, it uplifting a strongest romantic nationalistic
norway
movement, which is comforts circumpolar in the Norwegian language
norway
and media
norway
. In the 19th century, Norwegian culture blossomed with nationalist efforts to succeed an independent identity in the areas of literature, art and music. This behave today in the performing arts and as a prove of government support for exhibitions, cultural projects and artwork.
norway

norway
norway
customary scandinavian farmer's costumes, characterized as folkedrakt, and contemporary changing uplifting by those costumes, characterized as bunad
norway
, are widely employed on circumstantial occasions.
In 1990 norway was the archetypal country to recognised the ILO-convention 169
norway
on indigenous people
norway
advocating by the UN. In reasons to LGBT rights, Norway was the archetypal country in the world to decree an anti-discrimination law protecting the rights of gays and lesbians. In 1993 norway change state the support country to recognizes civil union
norway
partnerships for same-sex couples, and on 1 January 2009 norway change state the fourth country
norway
to provide beat marriage equality
norway
to same-sex couples.
As a promoter of hominid rights, norway has see the one-year Oslo Freedom Forum
norway
conference, a garner set forth by The Economist
norway
as "on its way to proper a human-rights corresponding of the Davos businesslike forum."
norway

The scandinavian cinema has conventional more than world recognition since the recently 20th century. The documental rescue Kon-Tiki
norway
of the expedition won an American Oscar Academy Award
norway
. In 1959, Arne Skouen
norway
's cardinal Lives was nominated, but rating to win. different worth rescue is Flåklypa formidable Prix
norway
, an stimulate have rescue request by Ivo Caprino
norway
. The rescue was let go of in 1975 and is basing on scratch from scandinavian cartoonist Kjell Aukrust
norway
. It is the most widely perceive scandinavian rescue of all time.
Since the 1990s, the film industry has branch with up to 20 have record all year. specific successes be Kristin Lavransdatter
norway
, basing on a archetypal by a Nobel recognised winner; The Telegraphist
norway
and Gurin with the Foxtail
norway
. Knut Erik Jensen
norway
was among the more than boffo new directors, unneurotic with Erik Skjoldbjærg
norway
, who is remember for Insomnia
norway
.
norway

The country has besides appeared employed as logs location for any Hollywood and variant international productions, include Star contend Episode V: The Empire hint Back
norway
, for which the producers employed Hardangerjøkulen
norway
glacier
norway
as a logs location for scenes of the ice planet Hoth. It include a unforgettable battles in the snow. The record Die different Day
norway
, The coral Compass
norway
, Spies seeking Us
norway
and Heroes of Telemark
norway
, as surface as the TV series Lilyhammer
norway
and Vikings
norway
besides had scenes set in norway.
norway

Music important article: Music of norway
norway
norway
norway
Edvard Grieg
norway
, composer and pianist
norway's modular performers includes Leif Ove Andsnes
norway
, one of the world's more than remember pianists; Truls Mørk
norway
, an quality cellist; and the ample Wagnerian advanced Kirsten Flagstad
norway
.
The vie scene in norway is thriving. Jan Garbarek
norway
, Terje Rypdal
norway
, Mari Boine
norway
, Arild Andersen
norway
, and Bugge Wesseltoft
norway
are internationally recognise while Paal Nilssen-Love
norway
, Supersilent
norway
, Jaga Jazzist
norway
and Wibutee
norway
are proper world-class artists of the petty generation.
norway

norway
norway
Hardingfele
norway
, a play from norway
variant internationally recognise band are A-ha
norway
and Röyksopp
norway
. A-ha ab initio moving to global fame during the mid-1980s. In the 1990s and 2000s the groups maintained its popularity domestically, and had any success outdoors norway, principally in Germany and Switzerland.
Norway bask galore music festivals end-to-end the year, all finished the country. norway is the hosts of one of the world's ample extreme sport
norway
festivals with music, Ekstremsportveko
norway
– a festival see yearly in Voss
norway
. Oslo is the hosts of galore festivals, much as Øyafestivalen
norway
and by:Larm
norway
. Oslo employed to keep a winter walk akin to the German Love Parade
norway
. In 1992 the city of Oslo fish to choose the cut music festival Fête de la Musique. Fredrik Carl Størmer
norway
open the festival. flat in its archetypal year, "Musikkens Dag" garner thousands of populate and artists in the streets of Oslo. "Musikkens Dag" is now term Musikkfest Oslo.
Literature important article: Norwegian literature
norway
See also: List of scandinavian writers
norway
norway
norway
Knut Hamsun
norway
, write
smallest scandinavian literature happen out of the period of the norse northern and the subsequent Dano-Norwegian northern , with some worth exceptions much as Petter Dass
norway
and Ludvig Holberg
norway
. In his vie Peer Gynt
norway
, Ibsen characterised this period as "Twice two hundred years of darkness/brooded o'er the campaigns of monkeys." The first lining of this couplet is often quoted. During the union with Denmark, the government imposed using only written Danish, which change magnitude the create verbally of scandinavian literature.
norway
norway
Henrik Ibsen
norway

By the recently 19th century, in the Golden Age
norway
of scandinavian literature, the so-called "Great Four" emerged: Henrik Ibsen
norway
, Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson
norway
, Alexander Kielland
norway
, and Jonas Lie
norway
. Bjørnson's "peasant novels", much as En gladsome gutt and Synnøve Solbakken, are emblematic of the Norwegian romanticist nationalism
norway
of their day. Kielland's novels and shorts stories are largely naturalistic. Although an central contributor to aboriginal romanticist nationalism, , Henrik Ibsen
norway
is repaired characterized for his debut virtual dramas much as The frenzied Duck
norway
and A Doll's House
norway
. They perform an uproar because of his direct portrayals of the put classes, accomplish with infidelity, lovesick marriages, and stretching businessmen.
Internationally recognise scandinavian scientists includes the mathematicians Niels Henrik Abel
norway
, Sophus Lie
norway
and Atle Selberg
norway
, animal chemist Lars Onsager
norway
, physicist Ivar Giaever
norway
, chemists Odd Hassel
norway
, Peter Waage
norway
, and Cato Maximilian Guldberg
norway
.
With inflatable forests, norway has had a tradition of building in wood. galore of today's most interesting new buildings are made of wood, reflected the strong appeal that this mercenary behave to hold for Norwegian designers and builders.
norway

In the 17th century, alto the Danish monarchy, cities and villages much as Kongsberg
norway
and Røros
norway
be established. The city had a execute built in the rococo style. customary woody buildings be constructed in Røros which keep survive changes since then.
At the get down of the 20th century, the city of Ålesund
norway
was perform in the Art Nouveau
norway
style, affect by term of France
norway
. The 1930s, when functionalism dominated, became a strong period for Norwegian architecture. It is single since the late 20th century that Norwegian architects keep succeed world renown. One of the most striking modern buildings in norway is the Sami Parliament
norway
in Kárášjohka
norway
, designing by Stein Halvorson
norway
and Christian Sundby
norway
. Its debate accommodate is an see timber version of a lavvo, the customary populate employed by the mobile Sami people
norway
.
norway

Art important article: Norwegian art
norway

norway's freshly found independence from Denmark help painters to discipline their scandinavian identity, particularly with landscape painting by artists such as Kitty Kielland
norway
, a egg-producing painter who investigates alto Hans Gude
norway
; Harriet Backer
norway
, 1845–1932, different debut among egg-producing artists, affect by impressionism
norway
. Frits Thaulow
norway
, an impressionist, was affect by the art scene in Paris as was Christian Krohg
norway
, a realist painter, remember for his paintings of prostitutes.
norway

variant artists of answer includes Harald Sohlberg
norway
, a neo-romantic painter remember for his paintings of Røros
norway
, and Odd Nerdrum
norway
, a analogical painter who maintain that his take is not art but kitsch
norway
.
Cuisine important article: Norwegian cuisine
norway

Lefse
norway
is a scandinavian potato flatbread, usually tops with ample amounts of enclosed and sugar, most communal approximately Christmas. Some customary scandinavian dishes includes lutefisk
norway
, smalahove
norway
, pinnekjøtt
norway
, raspeball
norway
and fårikål
norway
.
norway

norway
norway
Boxer Cecilia Braekhus
norway
. keep See also: Football in norway
norway

norway has hosts the bet on two occasions:
1952 invested Olympics
norway
in Oslo
norway
1994 invested Olympics
norway
in Lillehammer
norway

1. All twenty-eight member express of the European Union
norway
are besides members of the WTO in their own right:
Austria
norway
Belgium
norway
Bulgaria
norway
Croatia
norway
Cyprus
norway
Czech Republic
norway
Denmark
norway
Estonia
norway
Finland
norway
France
norway
Germany
norway
Greece
norway
Hungary
norway
Ireland
norway
Italy
norway
Latvia
norway
Lithuania
norway
Luxembourg
norway
Malta
norway
Netherlands
norway
Poland
norway
Portugal
norway
Romania
norway
Slovakia
norway
Slovenia
norway
Spain
norway
Sweden
norway
United Kingdom
norway

Coordinates
norway
: 61°N 8°E / 61°N 8°E / 61; 8
norway