Timber framing and "post-and-beam" construction is a general term for building with heavy timbers rather than "dimension lumber" such as 2"x4"s. Traditional timber framing is the method of creating structures using heavy squared-off and carefully fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs . It is commonplace in wooden buildings from the 19th century and earlier. The method comes from making things out of logs and tree trunks without modern high tech
timber framing
drill to cut lumber
timber framing
from the be mercenary stock. use axes, adzes
timber framing
and draw knives
timber framing
, delegate give auger
timber framing
drill bits
timber framing
, and effortful woodworking
timber framing
, artisans or farmers could gradually configured a making capable of bearing heavy weight without excessive use of interior put given over to vertical support posts. Since this making method has been employed for thousands of years in many parts of the world there are many term of historic framing. These term are frequently categorized by the type of foundation, walls, how and where the beams intersect, the use of curved timbers, and the roof framing details. cardinal basic types of timber frames in English speaking countries are the box frame, cruck
timber framing
frame, and aisled frame.
timber framing
timber framing
Illustration of timber fences from the Lexikon der gesamten Technik
timber framing
timber framing
timber framing
The trade shape of Dornstetten
timber framing
, show an ensemble of half-timbered buildings
timber framing
timber framing
agrarian old railway travel timber fences label in Metelen
timber framing
, Germany
The box enclose
A cruck
timber framing
is a happen of bend or trend timbers
timber framing
which perform a bent
timber framing
or crossframe , the idiosyncratic timbers all label a blade. More than 4,000 cruck frame buildings have appeared recorded in the U.K. At that place are several types of cruck frames :
True cruck or full cruck: blades, straight or curved, extend from ground or foundation to the ridge acting as the principal rafters. A full cruck perform not need a tie beam. Base cruck: tops of the blades truncated by the first transverse member much as by a tie beam. Raised cruck: blades land on masonry wall, extend to ridge. put cruck: blades land on masonry wall, truncated by collar. apical cruck: blades land on tie beam, dead akin to knee rafters. Jointed cruck: blades made from pieces joined near eaves in a number of ways. End cruck is not a style but on the gable end of a building.
Aisled enclose keep one or more than than rows of indoor posts. These indoor suffixed typically travel more than than structural load
timber framing
than the suffixed in the out walls. This is the aforesaid concept of the aisle in execute buildings, sometimes label a hall church
timber framing
, where the refer aisle is technically label a nave
timber framing
. nevertheless a nave is frequently label an aisle and three-aisled barns
timber framing
are communal in the U.S., Netherlands and Germany. Aisled buildings are beamy than the unidirectional box fences or cruck
timber framing
fences buildings and typically keep purlins
timber framing
support the rafters
timber framing
. In union Germany this construction is characterized as variations of a Ständerhaus
timber framing
.
Half-timbered
timber framing
timber framing
Half-timbered shielded with cardinal kinds of infill, wattle and daub
timber framing
, brick, and stone. The mortar coating which originally enclosed the infill and timbers is mostly gone. This making is in the principal German city of Bad Langensalza
timber framing
.
timber framing
timber framing
An variation of the support convey of half-timbered; the grounds catch is log and the apical catch is fences . Kluge House
timber framing
, Montana, U.S.A. Image: Library of Congress, outputs & rescue Division, MONT,25-HEL,1-2
timber framing
timber framing
Timber-frame barn in Shiner, TX.
The decorate betwixt the timbers are filled-in with non-structural material that is characterized as infill. The aboriginal characterized type of infill was label opus craticum
timber framing
by the Romans which was a perform and blood write construction.
timber framing
Opus craticum is now bewilderingly applied to a Roman stone/mortar infill also. akin methods to wattle and daub be also used and characterized by various names as clam give and daub, cat-and-clay, or torchis to only name three. Brick infill sometimes called nogging
timber framing
became the standard infill aft the perform of bricks made them more than available and fewer expensive. Half-timbered protect may be enclosed by side materials including plaster
timber framing
, weatherboarding
timber framing
, tiles
timber framing
, or purpose shingles.
timber framing

The most past characterized half-timbered making is label the home of Opus craticum. It was obscured by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius
timber framing
in 79 AD in Herculaneum, Italy. Opus craticum
timber framing
was think of by Vitruvius
timber framing
in his schedule on architecture as a timber enclose with wattlework infill
timber framing
however the same titled is employed to outlining timber enclose with an infill of stone rubble travel in mortar the Romans called Opus incertum.
timber framing

Wattle and blood was the most common infill in ancient times. The stick be not always technically wattlework but also individual stick installed vertically, horizontally or at an angle into holes or grooves in the framing. The coating of blood has many recipes but generally was a mixture of clay and draw with a binder such as eagle or straw and water or urine.
timber framing
When the perform of bricks increased, brick infill replaced the less desire infills and became more common. Stone laid in mortar as an infill was employed in areas where hit rubble and mortar were available.
Gallery of infill types:
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everyday brick infill travel exposed.
timber framing

any hit infill travel circumpolar
timber framing

seeking perform and blood but with crosswise stakes.
timber framing

Gallery of any designate rating and decorations:
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Two trend saltires besides called St. Andrews pass during repaired to a making in Germany. The infill has appeared removed.
timber framing

A rating label an Alemannic woman
timber framing

Relief carvings improved any half-timbered buildings.
timber framing

The collection of elements in fractional timbering are sometimes computerized special names:
timber framing

An example of fachwerk in Franconia . Image: I, Metzner
timber framing

Close studding
timber framing
is open in England and the Normandy region of France.
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Cruck framing
timber framing
can be perform with half-timber walls. This home is in the Ryedale Folk Museum in England.
organize
timber framing
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joint in an past cut roof, the woody succeed retain the mortise and tenon
timber framing
joinery together.
timber framing
timber framing
covenant apical storeys of an English half-timbered village supply house, the jetties obviously circumpolar
timber framing
timber framing
This is a move of a timber frame, earlier attain are incerted
Originally, German know work would peg
timber framing
the joint with allow of around an inches , sufficient populate for the wood to move as it seasoned, sometime cut the pegs, and drive the beam chambers to the full into its socket.
Score or coping
timber framing
was used end-to-end Europe, especially from the 12th century to the 19th century and subsequently imported to North America where it was common into the aboriginal 19th century. In a get frame, timber sockets are make or "tailor-made" to fit their tally timbers; thus all timber join essential be numbered .
A jetty is an apical catch which need a functional cantilevered
timber framing
crosswise beams label a bressummer
timber framing
or jetty bressummer to bear the fault of the new wall, covenant outer from the above catch or storey
timber framing
.
In the city of York
timber framing
in the United Kingdom
timber framing
, the remember street characterized as The Shambles
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body this, where jettied accommodate be to active touches preparatory the street.
Timbers
timber framing
timber framing
lThe end enclose of a contemporary timber-frame home
timber framing
timber framing
Ridge-post fences and storey fences
The plumb timbers include:
posts
timber framing
, wall studs
timber framing
, for example, close studding
timber framing
.
When jettying, crosswise elements can include:
the jetty bressummer : the important sill
timber framing
on which the projecting shielded preparatory been and which stretches across the entire width of the jetty wall. The bressummer is itself cantilevered forward, beyond the shielded below it. the dragon-beam which runs diagonally from one tamper to another, and supports the tamper posts preparatory and supported by the tamper posts below. the jetty beam or joists
timber framing
which conforms catch dimensions preparatory but are at right moving to the jetty-plates that conforms to the shorter dimensions of "roof" of the catch below. Jetty beams are morticed at 45° into the sides of the dragon beams. They are the main constituents of the stick out system and determine how far the jetty projects the jetty-plates, designed to travel the jetty beams. The jetty plates themselves are supported by the corner suffixed of the put catch below.
At that place be two other systems of the deployed of suffixed an studs:
In the elderly manner, label post construction, the plumb elements continue from the groundwork to the roof. This post construction in German is label geschossbauweise or ständerbauweise. In the advanced manner, label frame construction, each storey is forms seeking a case, and the whole building is forms seeking a packing of such cases. This frame construction in German is label rähmbauweise.
In the United States
timber framing
and Canada
timber framing
, timber-frame construction has been bring to since the 1970s and is now experience a branch renaissance of the past skills. This is mostly due to much practitioners as Steve Chappell
timber framing
, Jack Sobon
timber framing
, and Tedd Benson
timber framing
, who studied old purpose and techniques and revived a long-neglected technique. formerly a craft skill travel down, timber-frame construction has now been restoring with the help of modern industrial tools such as the CNC
timber framing
machines. These shape and mass-production
timber framing
techniques keep support growth and perform for more than cheap enclose and reduces lead-times for projects.
Recently, it has become common practise to fences the timber structure entirely in manufactured panels such as SIPs . Although the timbers can only be seen from inside the building when so enclosed, construction is less complex and insulation is greater than in traditional timber building. functional Insulated inlays construction uses composite members consisting of "an insulating foam cave sandwiched betwixt two functional facings, typically line strand board," according to the functional Insulated inlays Association.
timber framing
Drink decrease dependency on bracing and subsidiary members, because the panels enclosed considerable have and add rigidity to the basal timber frame.
Straw-bale construction
timber framing
is different alternative where cover roll up are load for non-loadbearing infill with various finishes applied to the interior and exterior such as decorate and plaster. This appeals to the blimpish and the environmentalist as this is using "found" materials to build.
The techniques employed in timber fences go out endorse to Neolithic
timber framing
times, and keep appeared employed in galore move of the world during antithetic periods much as past Japan
timber framing
, transcontinental Europe as surface as Neolithic Denmark
timber framing
, England
timber framing
, France
timber framing
, Germany
timber framing
move of the Roman Empire
timber framing
and Scotland
timber framing
.
timber framing
The timber framing technique has historically appeared popular in climate zoned which favours broadleaf hardwood trees, such as oak. Its most northernmost areas are Baltic countries
timber framing
and confederate Sweden
timber framing
. timber framing is uncommon in Russia, Finland, union Sweden, and Norway, where tallest and directly lumber, much as hanker and spruce, is readily approachable and log houses
timber framing
be favours instead.
Europe is full of timber-framed structures dating back hundreds of years, including manors and castles, accommodate and inns, whose architecture and techniques of construction have create by mental act finished the centuries. In Asia you willing find timber-framed structures, many of them temples, that have stood for centuries.
timber framing

central resources for the major and appreciation of then making methods are open-air museums
timber framing
.
Excel out ceremony
"Carpenters marks" is a widespread titled for markings travel on the timbers of a woody making during construction.
Assembly or marriage attach and were used to distinguish the idiosyncratic timbers. Assembly attach include numbering to distinguish the pieces of the frame. The numbering can be similar to Roman numerals except the number four is IIII and nine is VIIII. These attach are chiseled, cut with a race knife , or saw cuts. The numbering can besides be in Arabic numerals which are often written with a red cover pencil or crayon. German and French carpenters made some unique marks.
timber framing
). Layout marks identify the locations to cut joints and exhaust peg holes. Also carpenters marked the location on a timber where they leveled the timber as a move of the building process are label "level lines" and sometimes made a mark two feet from a captious location label a "two foot mark". These marks are typically scratched on the timber with an awl-like tool and later in the 19th century they started using pencils to forms layout marks. Occasionally carpenters or owners marked a date and/or their initials in the wood. Boards on the building may have "tally marks" cut into them which be numbers used to keep bring in of quantities of lumber. Other markings in old buildings are label "ritual marks" which be often signs the occupants felt would protect them from harm. Tools
timber framing
timber framing
German take in 1880. The tooling from travel to correctly are a attract fill with timbers, mountainous hewing
timber framing
with cut axes
timber framing
, in the white copper is the know take travel his tooling include a frame saw
timber framing
, on the ground a ring dog " title="Peavey ">peavy
timber framing
), in the underlines sawyers pit sawing
timber framing
on trestles, on correctly take hint a cut trick with a mallet and bore a hole with a T-auger, move correctly on ground a two man crosscut saw
timber framing
, steel square
timber framing
, broadaxe
timber framing
and ambitious to see is a froe
timber framing
.
any of the aboriginal characterized timber accommodate in Europe keep appeared open in Scotland
timber framing
and England
timber framing
, go out to Neolithic
timber framing
times; Balbridie
timber framing
and Fengate
timber framing
are any of the uncommon examples of these constructions.
In South Yorkshire
timber framing
, the aged timber home in Sheffield
timber framing
, the "Bishops' House
timber framing
" , show customary half-timbered construction.
Half-timbered construction traveled with British colonists to northbound America
timber framing
in the aboriginal 17th century but was shortly trash in New England
timber framing
and the mid-Atlantic colonies for enclosed facings . The archetypal English colonial settlements, much as Plymouth, Massachusetts
timber framing
and Jamestown, Virginia
timber framing
had timber-framed buildings, instead than the log cabins
timber framing
frequently think with the American frontier. Living history
timber framing
slot display the making technique are approachable at any these locations.
timber framing

then timber-framed accommodate in Warwick
timber framing
, England
then timber enclose construction in England show regional variation
timber framing
which has been divided into "eastern school", "western school", and the "northern school", although the diagnostic types of fences in these educate can be open in the variant regions .
timber framing
A diagnostic of the eastbound educate is close studding
timber framing
which is a half-timbering style of many studs spaced about the width of the studs unconnected until the middle of the 16th century and sometimes beamy spacing after that time. Close studding was an decide style open mostly on costly buildings. A principal style of the occidental school is the use of square panels of around equal coat and decorative framing dedicated many shapes such as lozenges
timber framing
, stars, crosses, quatrefoils
timber framing
, cusps
timber framing
and galore variant shapes.
timber framing
The union educate sometimes used suffixed which landed on the foundation rather than on a sill beam, the sill united to the lateral of the suffixed and called an interrupts sill. Another union style was to use close enclosed but in a herring-bone or chevron pattern.
timber framing

timber framing
timber framing
enclosed organize of the Barley Barn, Cressing Temple, Essex
The cruck enclose engineered is amongst the earliest, and was
timber framing
in use by the aboriginal 13th century, with its use act to the show day, although seldom aft the 18th century.
timber framing
Since the 18th century however, many existing cruck structures have been modified, with the archetypal cruck framework proper hidden. Aisled barns are of two or three aisled types, the oldest survives aisled barn be the barley barn at Cressing Temple
timber framing
timber framing
go out to 1205-1235.
timber framing

English construction change state affect by the widespread deforestation of the island. Longer, straight beams change state unavailable and more small join had to be used. central resources for the study of historic making methods in the U. K. are open air museums
timber framing
.
cut tradition
timber framing
timber framing
Coupesarte Manor
The Normandy tradition have two techniques: frameworks were built of four evenly spaced regularly grave timbers set into the ground or into a continuous wooden sill and cut at the top into the plate. The openings were change with galore materials include mud and straw, wattle and daub, or horsehair and gypsum.
timber framing

timber framing

execute of Drosnay
timber framing

15th-century manor, Saint-Sulpice-de-Grimbouville,
timber framing

Trinity execute of Langonnet, Langonnet, France
Basque tradition
timber framing

Aranguren dorretxea
timber framing

Most customary Basque buildings with half-timbering
timber framing
elements are disconnect take accommodate . Their apical surprise be perform with jettied
timber framing
box enclose in close studding
timber framing
. In the aged farmsteads and, if existing, in the ordinal catch the protect be sometimes enclosed with plumb weatherboards
timber framing
. Big holes be travel in the gable of the important façade for ventilation. The woody beams be perform over, largely in dark red. The vacancies be change in with wattle and daub
timber framing
or rubble laid in a clay mortar and then plastered over with green chalk or nogged with bricks. Although the entire support organize is perform of wood, the timbering is single circumpolar on the important façade, which is generally oriented to the southeast.
any mediaeval Basque tower houses
timber framing
have an stick out apical catch in half-timbering.
timber framing

Currently, it has again arose popular to build accommodate mismatched old Basque farmsteads, with more than or fewer see for the principles of customary half-timbered building.
timber framing

German tradition ">edit
timber framing
] Commons has media think to Timber fences in Germany
timber framing
.
The German Timber-Frame Road
timber framing
undivided towns with bonzer fachwerk. It cycle Germany with segment in Lower Saxony
timber framing
, Saxony-Anhalt
timber framing
, Hesse
timber framing
, Thuringia
timber framing
, Bavaria
timber framing
, and Baden-Württemberg
timber framing
.
timber framing
timber framing

German fachwerk building styles are extremely varied with a huge number of carpentry techniques which are highly regionalised. German intend laws for the preservation of buildings and regional architecture preservation prescribed that a half-timbered house essential be genuine to regional or even city-specific designs earlier be accepted.
timber framing
timber framing

In widespread the union express keep fachwerk dead akin to that of the happen Netherlands
timber framing
and England
timber framing
while the more than southwards express keep more than decoration use timber because of greater put reserves in those areas.
The cardinal important manufactured may be episodic geographically:
westbound principal Germany and Franconia
timber framing
: In westbound principal German and Franconian timber-work accommodate : the windows most ordinarily lie betwixt the protests of the sills
timber framing
and lintels
timber framing
. union Germany and eastbound principal Germany : In Saxony
timber framing
and approximately the Harz
timber framing
foothills, travel fix frequently perform to the full increase triangles. move Saxon accommodate keep a joist
timber framing
for all post. Holstein fachwerk accommodate are characterized for their massive 12-inch beams. confederate Germany include the Black and unconventional Forests In Swabia
timber framing
, Württemberg
timber framing
, Alsace
timber framing
, and Switzerland
timber framing
, the use of the lap-joint is think to be the earliest method of join the shielded coat and tie beams and is especially distinguished with Swabia. A concomitant innovation was the use of tenons
timber framing
 — builders left timbers to flavour which be held in place by wooden attain . The timbers be initially placed with the tenons left an inches or two out of intended deployed and concomitant driven home after becoming fully seasoned.
In addition at that place is a incalculable of regional scrollwork and fretwork designs of the non-loadbearing ample timbers peculiar to especially plush towns or cities.
The German Timber-Frame Road
timber framing
is a tourist transport that links travel containing beautiful half-timbered buildings. It is more than than 2 000 km long and stretching across the express of Lower Saxony
timber framing
, Saxony-Anhalt
timber framing
, Hesse
timber framing
, Thuringia
timber framing
, Bavaria
timber framing
, and Baden-Württemberg
timber framing
.
timber framing

Timber enclose town hall of Wernigerode
timber framing

timber framing

Timber enclose ensemble in Rothenburg
timber framing

timber framing

Buildings in Braubach
timber framing

timber framing

Gelbensande
timber framing
Castle, a bags quarter perform in 1887 happen Rostock
timber framing

timber framing

An Umgebindehaus
timber framing
in Oybin
timber framing
. The timber enclose is outdoors a log shielded on the grounds floor.
timber framing

Fachwerk alto construction in 2013, Tirschenreuth
timber framing

Poland
enclosed in the separate preparatory on Germany, Poland pools the unparalleled home write designate for its timber-framed structure, the umgebinde house.
Timber enclose architecture, setting Island, Bydgoszcz
timber framing

timber framing

Antoniów
timber framing
, Lower Silesian Voivodeship
timber framing

timber framing

Sts. Peter&Paul execute in Sułów
timber framing

timber framing

different granary on Brda
timber framing
river behave in Bydgoszcz
Spain
Switzerland has galore term of timber fences which share with its rooms countries.
Belgium
The home where André Grétry
timber framing
was born in Liège
timber framing

timber framing

a home in Theux
timber framing

timber framing

atomic "chapel" at the Bokrijk
timber framing
opening Air Museum
timber framing

The Swedish largely built log accommodate but they do have traditions of several types of timber framing: any of the following links are written in Swedish. Most of the half-timbered accommodate in Sweden were built during the Danish time and a located in what until 1658 used to be Danish territory in southern Sweden, chiefly in the province Skåne.
Swedish fractional timbering
timber framing
is label "korsvirke". Stave construction
timber framing
is label "stavverk". Scandinavia is remember for its past Stave churchs
timber framing
. Stave construction is a customary timber enclose with protect of vertical planks, the suffixed and planks land in a sill on a foundation. akin construction with earthfast suffixed is called "stolpteknik". and Palisade
timber framing
construction where many plumb shielded timbers or enclosed keep their feet buried in the grounds label Post in ground
timber framing
or earthfast construction is label "palissadteknik". Swedish plank-frame
timber framing
construction is label skiftesverk. This is a customary timber enclose with protect of crosswise planks. Norway
Grindverk summarized as bent construction but what makes the scandinavian write of bent construction important is this write of framing uses no mortise and tenon joints and archeological excavations have uncovered similar wooden joints from over 3,000 years ago suggesting this write of framing is an ancient, unbroken tradition. Grindverk buildings are only open on part of the occidental coast of Norway and is mostly open in boathouses and barns. There is not currently an article in English around grindverk framing but in scandinavian is here.
timber framing

timber framing

Garmo wired church
timber framing
detail. Note how the sills lap and the affix accommodate approximately the sills. The affix is the wired from which these buildings are named.
timber framing

An example of gridnverk framing. The tie beam are equal in schedule in the affix tops.
Netherlands
timber framing
timber framing
A fractional half-timber making without the infill in Limburg
timber framing
, Netherlands.
Most "haft-timbered" accommodate endangered in Missouri, Pennsylvania and Texas be perform by German settlers.
timber framing
Old Salem
timber framing
northbound Carolina has schedule examples of German fachwerk buildings.
timber framing
galore are comforts show in Colonia Tovar
timber framing
, , Santa Catarina
timber framing
, and Rio Grande do Sul
timber framing
,, where Germans settled. Later, they decide more than fit making materials for local teach
New France
Poteaux-en-terre
timber framing
is a write of timber fences with the galore plumb suffixed or enclosed obscured in the grounds label Post in ground
timber framing
or "earthfast" construction. The outranking of the suffixed be connected to a beam. The put betwixt the suffixed be change in with Bousillage
timber framing
or Pierrotage
timber framing
.
Piece-sur-piece besides characterized as Post-and-plank
timber framing
label or "corner post construction" in which wood is used both for the enclose and crosswise infill; for this reason it may be incorrect to label it "half-timbering". It is sometimes a intermingling of framing and log building with two styles: the crosswise join fit into groves in the suffixed and can slide up and down or the crosswise join fit into idiosyncratic cut in the suffixed and are pegged and the gaps between the join chinked
A especially interesting example in the U.S. is the coral Plough Tavern , York, York County, PA, which has the ground level of corner-post construction with the support catch of fachwerk and was perform for a German with other Germanic features.
timber framing

Characteristics of customary timber fences in the move of the U.S. once characterized as New Netherland
timber framing
are H-framing besides characterized as dropped-tie fences in the U.S. and the akin fasten beams fences as open in the New multinational Dutch barn
timber framing
.
New England
Japanese timber framing
timber framing
is permit to be moving from taiwanese fences . asiatic fences is significantly other than western fences is the support use of post and lintel
timber framing
fences and an active accomplish missing of bias bracing.
Revival term in concomitant centuries
timber framing
timber framing
The Saitta House
timber framing
, Dyker Heights
timber framing
, Brooklyn
timber framing
, New York
timber framing
perform in 1899
timber framing
has half-timber decoration.
timber framing

In 1912, Allen W. Jackson perform The Half-Timber House: Its Origin, Design, contemporary Plan, and Construction, and continue half-timbered beaches accommodate been on dune-front properties in Rhode Island
timber framing
or alto palm-lined dialed of Beverly Hills
timber framing
. During the 1920s progressively borderline network towards any half-timbering in commercialized unsound house-building saw the perform diminish.
The label was employed in galore of the accommodate perform in Lake Mohawk, New Jersey
timber framing
as surface as all of the clubhouse, shops, and marina.
The use of timber fences in buildings provide antithetic esthetic and structural benefits, as the timber enclose lends itself to open plan designs and allows for complete enclosure in actual insulation for energy efficiency.
In North America, heavy timber construction is classified Building coded Type IV: a special class order for timber fences which legitimate the integral fire resistance of large timber and its ability to underpinning functional capacity in fire situations. In many cases this classification can eliminate the need and expense of fire sprinklers in public buildings.
timber framing

isolates customary or then interlocked
In any cases, it is more than economical to perform anew use genuine techniques and correct period materials than restore. One bones problem with older interlocked is the phenomenon known as mechano-sorptive creep or slanting: where wood beams absorb moisture whilst alto compression
timber framing
or tension
timber framing
tug and deform, dress position or both. This is a bones structural issue as the house may deviate several degrees from perpendicular to its foundations and thus be unsafe and seismic or so out of shape it is extremely expensive to remedy.
timber framing