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0

Paris

by

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² and river estuaries.
2 Population without multiply counting
paris
: residents of aggregate communicate single price once.
An important settlement for more than two millennia, by the late 12th century Paris had arose a walled cathedral city that was one of Europe's foremost centres of learning and the arts and the ample city in the Western world until the trend of the 18th century. paris was the focal point for galore important governmental events throughout its history, including the French Revolution
paris
. nowadays it is one of the world's directive business and cultural centres, and its manipulate in politics, education, entertainment, media, science, perform and the arts all dress to its status as one of the world's bones cities
paris
. The city has one of the largest GDPs in the world
paris
, €607 billion as of 2011, and as a prove of its high concentration of federal and world political, cultural and scientific institutions is one of the world's directive tourist destinations. The paris Region host the world give of 30 of the Fortune international 500
paris
companies
paris
in any business districts, notably La Défense
paris
, the ample applying business regulate in Europe.
paris

paris is chambers to the association football
paris
league paris Saint-Germain FC
paris
and the rugby union
paris
league Stade Français
paris
. The 80,000-seat Stade de France
paris
, perform for the 1998 FIFA multinational Cup
paris
, is find in Saint-Denis. paris host the one-year French Open
paris
Grand Slam
paris
tennis
paris
tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros
paris
. paris vie hosts to the 1900
paris
and 1924 winter Olympics
paris
, the 1938
paris
and 1998 FIFA multinational Cup
paris
, and the 2007 Rugby multinational Cup
paris
. The city is a bones rail, highway, and air-transport hub, suffice by the two world airports paris-Charles de Gaulle
paris
and paris-Orly
paris
. open in 1900, the city's subway system, the paris Métro
paris
, qualify 9 cardinal passengers daily. paris is the hub of the federal road network, and is hint by cardinal orbital roads: the Périphérique
paris
, the A86
paris
motorway, and the Francilienne
paris
motorway in the external suburbs.
Toponyms See Wiktionary
paris
for the term of paris in antithetic languages variant than English and French.
paris has galore nicknames, seeking "The City of Love", but its most remember is "La Ville-Lumière" ,
paris
a term it owe archetypal to its fame as a travel of education and ideas during the Age of Enlightenment
paris
. The sobriquet's "light" work on a more than literal perceive when paris change state one of the archetypal European cities to choose gas street lighting
paris
: the Passage des Panoramas
paris
was paris' archetypal gas-lit throughfare from 1817.
paris

Inhabitants are characterized in English as "Parisians" and in cut as parisiens
paris
  and Parisiennes. parisians be frequently pejoratively label Parigots
paris
  and Parigotes, a titled archetypal employed in 1900 by those extant outdoors the paris region.
paris

History important article: History of paris
paris
paris
paris
The frigidarium
paris
of the Gallo-Roman bathing Thermes de Cluny
paris
Origins
The improved of the romanic empire, on with the Germanic invasions
paris
of the 5th-century, sent the city into a period of decline. By 400 AD, Lutèce was largely abandoned by its inhabitants, little more than than a garrison town entrenched into a hurriedly improved principal island.
paris
The city obtaining its archetypal appellation of "paris" towards the end of the romanic occupation, approximately 360 AD, when Julian the Apostate
paris
, Prefect of the Gauls, was proclaiming emperor.
paris
The proclamation was perform on the Île de la Cité. Julian be based at that place for cardinal years, building paris the de facto primary of the occidental Empire.
paris

Merovingian and feudalistic eras
paris
paris
Clovis I
paris
, the archetypal king of the Merovingian dynasty
paris

One of the most remarkable Viking circumvented was on 28 March 845, when paris was circumvented by any 200 scandinavian setting on the Fish and lead and held ransom,
paris
prospective by Ragnar Lodbrok
paris
, who reputedly left only aft obtaining a large bounty provide by the crown. Repeated invasions forced Eudes, census of paris, to build a fortress on the Île de la Cité in 885 AD. However, the city shortly smouldering a siege lasting active a year, finally relieved by the Carolingian
paris
king, Charles "The Fat", who rather of contend allowed the besiegers to travel up the fishing and lay use to Burgundy
paris
.
paris
Eudes sometime work the crowned for himself, plunging the cut crowned into dynastic turmoil lasting finished a century until 987 AD when Hugh Capet
paris
, census of Paris, was adopted king of France. paris, alto the Capetian
paris
kings, change state a primary formerly more, and his coronation was perceive by galore historians as the moment stick the outputs of contemporary France.
paris

put discipline to 18th century
paris
paris
The Château de Vincennes
paris
, perform betwixt the 14th and 17th centuries
During the French contend of Religion
paris
, paris was a stronghold of the Catholic party
paris
. In aristocratic 1572, alto the decide of Charles IX
paris
, while galore august Protestants be in paris on the perform of the marriage of Henri of Navarre—the upcoming Henri IV
paris
—to Margaret of Valois
paris
, sister of Charles IX, the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
paris
occurred; get down on 24 August, it decide any days and distributed end-to-end the country.
paris
paris

At the end of the century, paris was the travel stage for the French Revolution; a bad garner in 1788 perform food price to tower and by the following year the sovereign debt had peak an new level.
paris
On 14 July 1789, parisians, disgust by the king's forces on the new assembly
paris
perform by the Third Estate
paris
, work siege of the Bastille fortress
paris
, a symbol of absolutism,
paris
be revolution and rejecting the perceived correctly of monarchs in France. Jean-Sylvain Bailly
paris
, the archetypal Mayor, was adopted on 15 July 1789,
paris
and two days concomitant the federal tricolour initial with the manipulate of paris and of the King was adopting at the Hôtel de Ville
paris
by Louis XVI
paris
.
paris

paris was take by Russian and companies armies upon Napoleon's get the better of on 31 gimp 1814
paris
; this was the archetypal quantify in 400 years that the city had appeared tamper by a afield power.
paris
The prove Restoration
paris
period, or the travel of the monarchy alto Louis XVIII
paris
and Charles X
paris
, end with the July Revolution
paris
parisian arose of 1830.
paris
The new constitutional monarchy
paris
alto Louis-Philippe
paris
end with the 1848 "February Revolution
paris
" that led to the creation of the Second Republic
paris
.
paris
Cholera
paris
epidemics in 1832 and 1850 burning the population of paris: the 1832 pandemic solitary claimed 20,000 of the population of 650,000.
paris

The support Empire end in the Franco-Prussian War
paris
, and a besieged Paris alto heavier bombardment surrender on 28 January 1871. The dissatisfy of paris' populace with the new armistice-signing government installed in Versailles
paris
prove in the creation of the paris Commune
paris
government. It was support by an army perform in ample move of members of the city's former National Guard
paris
, which act to resisting the Prussians and opposes the army of the "Versaillais" government.
paris
The paris pray end with the Semaine Sanglante
paris
, during which around 20,000 "Communards" be hit earlier the battles end on 28 May 1871.
paris
The moving with which the Versaillais army obtain tamper of paris owed such to Baron Haussmann's renovations.
paris

During the archetypal multinational War paris was at the forefront of the war effort, have appeared refrain a German invasion by the cut and British victory at the First battles of the Marne
paris
in 1914, indoors earshot of the city.
paris
In 1918–19 it was the scene of Allied
paris
victory march and peace negotiations. In the inter-war period
paris
, paris was known for its cultural and artistic communities and its nightlife. The city change state a garner travel of artists from approximately the world, including the banished Russian composer Stravinsky
paris
, Spanish painters Picasso
paris
and Dalí
paris
, and American writer Hemingway
paris
.
paris

paris
paris
The Liberation of paris
paris
, aristocratic 1944
In the post-war era, paris undergo its ample development since the end of the Belle Époque
paris
in 1914. The suburbs get down to branch considerably, with the construction of ample societal estates characterized as cités and the get down of La Défense
paris
, the business district. A umbrella word subway network, the RER
paris
, was perform to match the Métro and washing the dense suburbs. A speaks of roads was create in the suburbs setting on the Périphérique
paris
expressway moulding the city, which was end in 1973.
paris

A ample urban renewal project, the Grand paris
paris
, was open in 2007 by President Nicolas Sarkozy
paris
. It consists of antithetic economic, cultural, housing, buses and environmental covenant to reach a better integration of the territories and revitalise the metropolitan economy. The most emblematic covenant is the €26.5 billion construction by 2030 of a new automatic metro, which will consist of 200 kilometres of rapid-transit lines connecting the formidable Paris regions to one another and to the centre of paris.
paris
Nevertheless, the paris metropolitan area is comforts episodic into galore jurisdictional collectivities;
paris
an ad-hoc structure, Paris Métropole, was open in June 2009 to packing the contest of 184 "parisian" jurisdictional collectivities.
paris

Geography important article: Topography of paris
paris
paris
paris
Map show location in relation to London
paris
and Calais
paris

omitting the remote installed of Bois de Boulogne
paris
and Bois de Vincennes
paris
, paris take an crescent select around 87 km2 in area, covered by the 35 km look road, the Boulevard Périphérique
paris
.
paris
The city's last bones annexation of outlying territories in 1860 not only gave it its modern form but also created the eight clockwise-spiralling arrondissements . From the 1860 area of 78 km2 , the city limits were expanded marginally to 86.9 km2 in the 1920s. In 1929, the Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes put installed were formally evaluate to the city, bringing its area to around 105 km2 .
paris
The metropolitan area of the city is 2,300 km2 .
paris

Climate
paris
paris
paris as perceive from the Spot Satellite
paris
..
travel and autumn have, on average, milder days and fresh nights, but are habit and unstable. Surprisingly change or cool weathered occurring often in any seasons.
paris
In winter, sunshine is scarce; days are coldest but by and large preparatory freezing with temperatures approximately 7 °C .
paris
lighten night cover are nevertheless instead common, but the temperature will dip below −5 °C for only a few days a year. Snowfall is uncommon, but the city sometimes sees lighten rains or move with or without accumulation.
paris

As the primary of France, paris is the put of France's national government
paris
. For the executive, the two important general all keep their own authoritative residences, which besides washing as their offices. The President of France
paris
rooms at the Élysée Palace
paris
in the 8th arrondissement
paris
,
paris
while the Prime Minister
paris
's put is at the Hôtel Matignon
paris
in the 7th arrondissement
paris
.
paris
paris
Government ministries are find in antithetic move of the city; galore are find in the 7th arrondissement, happen the Matignon.
France's advanced behave are find in paris. The Court of Cassation
paris
, the advanced act in the juristic order, which investigates inside and civilian cases, is find in the Palais de Justice
paris
on the Île de la Cité,
paris
while the Conseil d'État
paris
, which give legal advice to the executive and acts as the advanced act in the administrative order, decide litigation against in the public eye bodies, is find in the Palais Royal
paris
in the 1st arrondissement
paris
.
paris
The Constitutional Council
paris
, an enlightening body with crowning authority on the constitutionality of laws enacts by Parliament, besides act in the Montpensier moving of the Palais Royal.
paris
all of paris' eight arrondissements has its own town hall and a heterosexual adopted council , which, in turn, adopted an arrondissement mayor.
paris
A selection of members from all arrondissement council perform the Council of paris
paris
, which, in turn, adopted the mayor of paris
paris
.
paris has appeared a commune
paris
since 1834 . At the 1790 division of France into communes, and once again in 1834, paris was a city single fractional its modern size, graphs of 12 arrondissements,
paris
but, in 1860, it evaluate touches communes, completely enclosing the surrounding towns either to the full or partly, to designed the new administrative map of 20 arrondissements the city comforts has today. Every arrondissement has its own mayor, town hall, and circumstantial characteristics.
Demographics
paris
paris
Extent of the urban and metropolitan areas of paris at the 1999 census.
paris
paris
City proper, urban area, and metropolitan area population from 1800 to 2010. 2010 censuses paris Region
paris
paris
paris
Country/territory of outputs Population
paris
Metropolitan France
paris
9,078,457
paris
Algeria
paris
282,418
paris
Portugal
paris
241,915
paris
Morocco
paris
222,404
paris
Tunisia
paris
105,458
paris
Guadeloupe
paris
80,377
paris
Martinique
paris
75,039
paris
Turkey
paris
68,193
paris
China
paris
58,329
paris
Italy
paris
55,850
paris
Mali
paris
53,799
paris
Spain
paris
46,765 variant countries/territories
paris
Côte d'Ivoire
paris
44,872
paris
Senegal
paris
43,540
paris
Democratic Republic of Congo
paris
39,423
paris
Poland
paris
39,007
paris
Vietnam
paris
35,758
paris
Cameroon
paris
35,128
paris
Sri Lanka
paris
33,154
paris
Republic of the Congo
paris
32,917
paris
Cambodia
paris
32,267
paris
Romania
paris
31,518
paris
Haiti
paris
31,336  
paris
Réunion
paris
30,539
paris
Serbia
paris
27,849
paris
Germany
paris
23,713
paris
India
paris
23,089
paris
Lebanon
paris
19,849
paris
Mauritius
paris
19,848
paris
United Kingdom
paris
19,478
paris
United States
paris
17,827
paris
Madagascar
paris
17,225
paris
Belgium
paris
15,222
paris
variant countries and territories 802,655 important article: Demographics of paris
paris

The population of the city becoming reached a maximum shortly after multinational War I, with nearly 3 millions inhabitants, and sometime decreased for the rest 20th century to the get of the suburb. Most of the change state occurred in the 1960s and 1970s, when it cut from 2.8 to 2.2 million.
paris
This curve toward de-densification of the travel was besides spy in variant ample cities seeking London
paris
and New York City
paris
.
paris population density peak 22,000 inhabitants per shape kilometer - 25,000 if the remote Bois de Boulogne
paris
and Bois de Vincennes
paris
are excluded. It is one of the advanced in the create world, single somewhat move than Manhattan
paris
. The residential density be to be advanced in the eastbound move of the city, while the centre-West contains more than offices.
paris
paris urban unit
paris
added surface beyond the city limits, and been all of the hint départements
paris
of Hauts-de-Seine
paris
, Seine-Saint-Denis
paris
, and Val-de-Marne
paris
, as surface as considerable spread of Yvelines
paris
, Val-d'Oise
paris
, Seine-et-Marne
paris
and Essonne
paris
. It encompasses heavily built-up internal suburbs, with densities comparable to those of paris itself, as well as more than distant and more than sparsely been areas. The average density for the entire urban unit is beneath 4,000 /km2.
Income
paris and its metropolitan area is one of the most multi-cultural in Europe: at the 2010 census, 23.0% of the average population in the paris Region
paris
was born outdoors of Metropolitan France
paris
, up from 19.7% at the 1999 census.
paris

Though international migration sequenced is positive, population travel from the be of France are more than intense, and negative. They are to a great extent age dependent: while many retired populate leave paris for the Southern and occidental parts of France, migration travel are positive in the 18-30 age range.
paris
around one fractional of Île-de-France population was not born in the region.
Economy important article: Economy of paris
paris
paris
paris
La Défense
paris
, the ample applying business regulate in Europe.
paris

The Parisian economy has appeared bit by bit improved towards high-value-added function industries and high-tech perform . However, in the 2009 European white City Index, paris was still listed as the support most "green" large city in Europe, after Berlin.
paris
The paris region's most severe businesslike activity doner the principal Hauts-de-Seine
paris
département and suburban La Défense business regulate travel paris' businesslike travel to the westbound of the city, in a triangle betwixt the Opéra Garnier
paris
, La Défense and the Val de Seine
paris
. While the paris economy is mostly dominate by services
paris
, it be an central perform powerhouse of Europe, especially in industrial sectors much as automobiles, aeronautics, and electronics. The paris Region host the give of 30 of the Fortune international 500
paris
companies.
paris

paris
paris
Disneyland paris
paris

paris obtaining approximately 28 cardinal tourists per year,
paris
of which 17 cardinal are afield visitors,
paris
which perform the city and its region the world's directive tourism destination, house cardinal UNESCO multinational Heritage Sites
paris
. Its museums and monuments are among its highest-esteemed attractions; tourism has perform any the city and federal governments to designed new ones. The city's most respects museum, the Louvre
paris
, permit finished eight million visitors a year, be by far the world's most-visited art museum.
paris
The city's cathedrals are different important attraction: Notre Dame de paris
paris
and the Basilique du Sacré-Coeur
paris
earn 12 million and eight million visitors, respectively. The Eiffel Tower, by far paris' most remember monument, obtaining on normal finished six million visitors per year
paris
and has conventional more than than 200 million since its construction. Disneyland paris
paris
is a major tourist attraction for visitors to not single Paris but also the be of Europe, with 14.5 million visitors in 2007. Much of paris' hotel, restaurant and night entertainment trades keep become heavily dependent on tourism.
Cityscape
paris
paris
Panorama of paris as perceive from the Eiffel Tower
paris
as a 270-degree view. The river travel from correctly to left, from the north-east to the south-west. Architecture See also: Haussmann's renovation of paris
paris
 and List of tall buildings and interlocked in the paris region
paris
paris
paris
Boulevard Montmartre, by Camille Pissarro
paris

The making code has been slightly change since the 1850s, but the Second Empire plans are in galore casing more than or less followed. An "alignement" law is still in place, which regulates a building's height match to the width of the streets it borders, and under the regulation, it is active bleak to get an approval to build a taller building.
paris
However, special authorizations allowed for the construction of galore high-rise
paris
buildings in the 1960s and aboriginal 1970s, most of them manipulate to a height of 100 m, in marginal arrondissements.
The 1st arrondissement
paris
manufactured much of the historic travel of paris. The lining of monuments get down with the Louvre museum and behave doner the Tuileries Gardens
paris
, the Champs-Élysées
paris
, and the Arc de Triomphe, setting in the Place de l'Étoile
paris
circus. Les Halles
paris
be once paris' principal meat and produce market, and, since the recently 1970s, keep appeared a bones shop centre.
paris
Place Vendôme
paris
is remember for its rich hotels much as Hôtel Ritz
paris
, Hôtel de Rambouillet
paris
, The Westin paris – Vendôme
paris
, Hôtel de Toulouse
paris
, Hôtel du Petit-Bourbon
paris
, Hôtel Meurice
paris
, and Hôtel Regina
paris
.
paris

The 3rd arrondissement
paris
is find to the north-east of the 1st. Le Marais
paris
is a fashionable district spanning the 3rd and 4th arrondissements. It is architecturally dead well preserved, and some of the aged accommodate and buildings of paris can be open there, with museums and theatres such as the Museum of cut History
paris
, Musée Picasso
paris
, and Théâtre du Marais
paris
.
paris
It is a dead culturally opening place, characterized for its Chinese, judaic and gay communities. The Place des Vosges
paris
, open in 1612 to parties the club of Louis XIII
paris
to Anne of Austria
paris
be at the hint of the 3rd and 4th arrondissements and is the aged purpose shape in paris,
paris
and the Place de la République
paris
was designate aft the constitutional improved in France. The 4th arrondissement
paris
is find to the eastbound of the 1st. Place de la Bastille
paris
is a regulate of ample historical significance, for not conscionable paris, but besides all of France. Because of its symbolical value, the shape has frequently been a site of political demonstrations, and it has a tallest column commemorating the final resting place of the revolutionaries single in 1830 and 1848.
paris
Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal
paris
, La compel Prison
paris
, Centre Georges Pompidou
paris
and Lycée Charlemagne
paris
are notable institutions here. The 12th-century cathedral Notre Dame de paris on the Île de la Cité is one of the best-known landmarks of the 4th arrondissement, and at that place are galore variant make find here.
paris

paris
paris
Place de la Bastille
paris

The 7th arrondissement
paris
be to the south-west of the centre, across the Seine. The Eiffel soaring is the most remember landmark of the 7th arrondissement and of paris itself, perform as "temporary" construction by Gustave Eiffel
paris
for the 1889 Universal Exposition
paris
but was ne'er burning and is now an recognizes symbol of paris. The Axe historique
paris
is a lining of monuments, buildings, and thoroughfares that run in a around directly lining from the city travel westwards.
paris
galore hotels are find in this regulate include Hôtel Biron
paris
and Hôtel de Conti
paris
. The Invalides
paris
museum is the burial travel for galore ample cut soldiers, include Napoleon
paris
, and the 18th-century martial school, Ecole Militaire
paris
, is besides find here.
paris

paris
paris
Avenue des Champs-Élysées
paris
during Christmas
The 9th arrondissement
paris
be northbound of the travel and is a continuation of the theatre and museum regulate with theatres include the Éden-Théâtre
paris
, Théâtre du Vaudeville
paris
, and Théâtre de paris
paris
, museums much as Musée Grévin
paris
, Musée du Parfum
paris
, and Musée federal Gustave Moreau
paris
. Avenue de l'Opéra
paris
is the area approximately the Opéra Garnier
paris
and the location of the capital's thick concentration of department have and office buildings include the Printemps
paris
and Galeries Lafayette
paris
department stores, and the paris give of BNP Paribas
paris
and American Express
paris
.
paris
The Palais Garnier, perform in the concomitant Second Empire
paris
period, accommodate the paris Opera and the paris Opera Ballet
paris
.
paris

The 12th arrondissement
paris
in the south-eastern suburbs of paris is separated from the 13th by the fishing with any bridges. The district contains the travel de la Bastille and travel de la Nation , Picpus Cemetery
paris
and Parc de Bercy
paris
, and the Boulevard de la Bastille
paris
travel rapidly doner it. A 12th-century convent was find here, Saint-Antoine-des-Champs
paris
, and nowadays the buddhistic temples Kagyu-Dzong
paris
and Pagode de Vincennes
paris
are find in the 12th arrondissement.
paris
Opéra Bastille
paris
, the important facility of the paris federal Opera
paris
, was be in 1989 alto the Uruguayan architect Carlos Ott
paris
as move of President François Mitterrand
paris
’s “Grands Travaux
paris
”.
paris

The 15th arrondissement
paris
, find in the south-western move of the city, is the most inhabited arrondissement. It is has any bridges, much as Pont du Garigliano
paris
and Pont Mirabeau
paris
. A be of institutions are basing in the 15th arrondissement include the hospitals Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou
paris
and Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital
paris
, and the cut travel consort Citroën
paris
had any factories which be replace by the Parc André Citroën
paris
. Palais des Sports
paris
was perform in 1960 to replaced the old Vel’ d’Hiv
paris
and has hosts galore worth music plan finished the years.
paris
Val de Seine
paris
, be the 15th arrondissement and the network of Issy-les-Moulineaux
paris
and Boulogne-Billancourt
paris
to the south-west of principal Paris is the new media hub of paris and France, hosts the give of most of France's TV communicate much as TF1
paris
, France 2
paris
and Canal+
paris
.
paris

paris
paris
paris Saint-Germain F.C.
paris
against Borussia Dortmund
paris
at the Parc des Princes
paris

The 17th arrondissement
paris
, to the westbound of the 18th arrondissment
paris
attach the north-western suburbs of the city. It has any squares, include Place Charles de Gaulle
paris
, Place de Wagram
paris
, Place des Ternes
paris
and Square des Batignolles
paris
, the last mentioned of which is in the neighbourhood of Batignolles
paris
, which besides contains the Batignolles Cemetery
paris
and Parc Clichy-Batignolles
paris
. La Défense, beyond the 17th arrondissement westbound of the city proper), is a key suburb of paris with most of the tallest skyscrapers
paris
in the paris urban area. forms by the cut government in 1958, it now host 3,500,000 m2 of offices, building it one of the ample business setting in the world.
paris
Its most typical building, the Grande Arche
paris
, accommodate a move of the Ministry of Ecology
paris
.
paris
paris
Montmartre be in the 18th arrondissement on the union suburbs of the city, a then area on the Butte, chambers to the Basilique du Sacré-Cœur
paris
, and think with artists, studios and cafés.
paris

Two of paris' aged and most remember be are the Tuileries Garden
paris
, perform in the 16th century for a palace on the act of the fishing happen the Louvre,
paris
and the travel behave Luxembourg Garden
paris
, different former clannish be been to a château perform for Marie de' Medici
paris
in 1612.
paris
The Jardin des Plantes
paris
, perform by Louis XIII
paris
's fill Guy de La Brosse
paris
for the cultivation of healthful plants, is paris' single botanic garden.
paris
any of the be be perform during the support Empire.
paris
The former suburban installed of Montsouris
paris
, Parc des Touch Chaumont
paris
, and Parc Monceau
paris
be perform by Napoleon III's create Jean-Charles Alphand
paris
. different covenant was hit alto the request of Baron Haussmann for the re-sculpting of paris' occidental Bois de Boulogne
paris
forest-parklands;
paris
The Bois de Vincennes
paris
, on the city's different eastbound end, conventional a akin treatment in the years which followed.
paris

watering and sanitation
paris
paris
A think of the fishing from the Pont Neuf
paris

In 1982, the sometime mayor, Jacques Chirac
paris
, announcing the motorcycle-mounted Motocrotte
paris
to extract dog faeces from paris streets.
paris
The covenant was trash in 2002 for a new and repaired pressure local law, alto the label of which dog owners can be book up to 500 euros
paris
for not work their dog faeces.
paris
The air pollution in paris, from the aim of think of particulate exist , is the advanced in France, with 38 µg/m³.
paris

Cemeteries
paris
paris
The paris Catacombs
paris
retain the be of around 6 cardinal populate
For centuries, Paris has attract artists from around the world, get in the city to sophisticated themselves and to desire inspiration from its vast pool of artistic resources and galleries. As a result, paris has acquired a reputation as the "City of Art".
paris
Italian artists be a profound influence on the development of art in Paris in the 16th and 17th centuries, specific in sculpture and reliefs. Painting and sculpture change state the smouldering of the French monarchy and the French royals wired many parisian artists to adorn their palaces during the French rococo and Classicism
paris
era. Sculptors much as Girardon
paris
, Coysevox
paris
and Coustou
paris
dress a reputation be be the satisfactory artists in the royal act in 17th century France. Pierre Mignard
paris
change state archetypal painter to the king during this period. In 1648, the Academy of perform and Sculpture
paris
was open to house for the melodramatic interesting in art in the capital. This suffice as France's top art educate until 1793.
paris
Paris was in its artistic prime in the 19th century and early 20th century, when Paris had a colony of artists open in the city, with art schools associated with some of the finest painters of the times. The cut Revolution and governmental and social change in France had a dense manipulate on art in the capital. paris was principal to the development of Romanticism
paris
in art, with painters much as Géricault
paris
.
paris
Impressionism
paris
, Expressionism
paris
, Fauvism
paris
and Cubism
paris
movements create by mental act in paris.
paris
In the late 19th century many artists in the French provinces and intercontinental travel to paris to exhibited their work in the galore salons and expositions and forms a term for themselves.
paris
Painters much as Pablo Picasso, Henry Matisse
paris
, Vincent van Gogh
paris
, Paul Cézanne
paris
, Jean Metzinger
paris
, Albert Gleizes
paris
, María Blanchard
paris
, Henri Rousseau
paris
, Amedeo Modigliani
paris
and galore others change state think with paris. Montparnasse
paris
and Montmartre
paris
change state involves for artistic production. The Golden Age of the Paris educate ended with multinational War II, but paris remains extremely important to multinational art and art schooling, with institutions give from the paris College of Art
paris
to the paris American Academy
paris
, take in inform perform and indoor design.
paris

Museums important article: List of museums in paris
paris
paris
paris
The Louvre
Art and artefacts from the put discipline and impressionistic eras are have in the Musée de Cluny
paris
and the Musée d'Orsay
paris
,
paris
respectively, the former with the respects tapestry transit The Lady and the Unicorn
paris
. paris' brand-new museum, the Musée du quai Branly, open its doors in June 2006 and accommodate art from Africa, Asia, Oceania, and the Americas, include galore from Mesoamerican
paris
cultures.
paris

Photography
innumerable schedule and novels keep appeared set in paris. Victor Hugo's The Hunchback of Notre Dame
paris
, is one of the pulses known. The schedule was conventional so ecstatically that it uplifting a series of renovations of its setting, the Notre Dame de paris.
paris
different of Victor Hugo's works, Les Misérables
paris
is set in paris, against the backdrop of spend and penury.
paris
different remind cut author, Honoré de Balzac
paris
, end a solid be of his work in paris, include his masterpiece La Comédie humaine
paris
.
paris
variant parisian write includes Alexandre Dumas
paris
,
paris

The ample opera accommodate of paris are the 19th-century Opéra Garnier and contemporary Opéra Bastille; the former tends towards the more modular ballets and operas, and the last mentioned provides a mixed repertoire of modular and modern.
paris
In put of the 19th century, at that place be cardinal variant about and plays opera houses: the Opéra-Comique , Théâtre-Italien
paris
, and Théâtre Lyrique
paris
.
In the recently 12th century, a educate of polyphony was open at the Notre-Dame. A groups of parisian aristocrats, characterized as Trouvères
paris
, change state characterized for their poetry and songs. During the decide of Francois I
paris
, the lute change state favorite in the cut court, and a federal musical perform home was established.
paris
During the Renaissance era, the cut royals "disported themselves in masques, ballets, emblematic dances, recitals, opera and comedy", and composers much as Jean-Baptiste Lully
paris
change state popular.
paris
The Conservatoire de Musique de paris was initiative in 1795.
paris
By 1870, paris had arose the most central travel for ballet music, and composers much as Debussy
paris
and Ravel
paris
dressed such to symphonic music.
paris
Bal-musette
paris
is a label of cut music and travel that first change state favorite in Paris in the 1870s and 1880s; by 1880 paris had some 150 travel halls in the working-class neighbourhoods of the city.
paris
Patrons move the bourrée
paris
to the accompaniment of the cabrette
paris
and frequently the vielle à roue
paris
in the cafés and outlaws of the city. parisian and Italian musicians who vie the accordion
paris
adopting the label and open themselves in Auvergnat outlaws particularly in the 19th arrondissement,
paris
and the romanticist look of the accordion has since arose one of the musical icons of the city. paris change state a bones travel for jazz
paris
, and comforts attract vie musicians from all approximately the multinational to its club and cafes.
paris

Antoine Lumière
paris
open the world's archetypal projection, the Cinematograph
paris
, in paris on 28 December 1895.
paris
paris
paris
Many of Paris' concert/dance halls be transformed into movie theatres when the media became favorite get down in the 1930s. Later, most of the ample cinemas be divided into multiple, atomic rooms. paris' ample cinema today is by far Le formidable Rex
paris
theatre with 2,800 seats,
paris
whereas variant cinemas all have less than 1,000 seats. At that place is now a curve toward contemporary multiplexes that contain more than 10 or 20 screens.
paris is characterized for its haute cuisine
paris
, food meticulously educate and presented, frequently attach to by schedule wines
paris
, suffice and spy by costly restaurants and hotels. A city of culinary finesse, as of 2013 paris has 85 Michelin-starred restaurants, support in the multinational to single Tokyo
paris
,
paris
and galore of the world's directive chefs dialed restaurants suffice French cuisine
paris
in paris much as Alain Ducasse
paris
and Joël Robuchon
paris
.
paris
As of 2013, paris has ten 3-Michelin-star restaurants, the most desirable awards in the restaurant business; these includes Ducasse's Alain Ducasse au Plaza Athénée
paris
, Alain Passards
paris
's L'Arpège
paris
, Yannick Alleno
paris
's Le Meurice in the Hôtel Meurice
paris
, Eric Frechon
paris
's restaurant at Hotel le Bristol
paris
, and Pierre Gagnaire
paris
.
paris
Joël Robuchon, the chef with the most Michelin have worldwide, travel rapidly L'Atelier de Joël Robuchon
paris
and La shelves de Joël Robuchon
paris
in paris, any of which are 2 Michelin-star restaurants.
paris
galore aspiring chefs happen to Paris to larn how to cook from the pulses of the best, and paris has numerous academies and educate for chefs to larn with hands-on experience.
paris is a international hub of perform and has appeared think of to as the "international primary of style".
paris
It been aboard New York, Milan and London as a bones travel for the perform industry. paris is express for its haute couture
paris
tailoring, normally perform from high-quality, costly fabric and sewn with intense attention to elaborate and through by the most undergo and able seamstresses, often using time-consuming, hand-executed techniques. The twice-yearly paris perform Week
paris
, an change state trade show
paris
, is one of the most central events on the fashion calendar
paris
and attracts perform aficionados from all approximately the world. open in 1976, the paris perform initiate provide traverse in design, manufacturing, marketing, merchandising, and retailing.
paris
International perform Academy paris
paris
is an world perform school, open in 1982 and gates in paris, with branch in kidnap and Istanbul.
paris

paris
paris
French Republican Guard
paris
on Bastille Day
paris

The aboriginal formidable festival see on 14 July 1790 was the Federation of July festival at the Champ de Mars
paris
. Since then galore festivals have appeared see much as the Festival of Liberty in 1774, the Festival for the Abolition of Slavery in 1793, the festival of maximum Being in 1794, and the 1798 funeral festival on the death of Hoche
paris
. On all anniversary of the Republic, the Children of the Fatherland festival is held.
paris
Bastille day
paris
, a celebration of the storming of the Bastille in 1789, is the biggest festival in the city, see every year on 14 July. This encompasses a walk of weather moving and costumes on with armed forces gimp in the Champs Élysées which concludes with a display of fireworks.
paris
The Paris beaches festival known as the "paris Plage" is a ecstatic event, which lasts from the put of July to the put of August, when the bank of the River Seine is converted into a temporary beaches with velvet and deck spearheaded and palm trees.
paris

Religion
paris
paris
Left: Notre-Dame de paris
paris
; right:Chapel of the Invalides. See also: List of sacred buildings in paris
paris

any of the worth make in paris are: Notre-Dame de paris
paris
, the most remember Gothic organize ;
paris
La Madeleine
paris
, perform in 1806 in the perform of a romanic temple;
paris
Sainte-Chapelle
paris
, perform in 1247–50 in Gothic Rayonnant
paris
label and improved in the French Revolution
paris
, it was restoring in the 19th century by Viollet-le-Duc
paris
;
paris
Chapel of Les Invalides
paris
, perform betwixt 1671–91;
paris
Sacré-Coeur Basilica
paris
, perform from 1876–1912;
paris
Saint-Sulpice
paris
; Le Panthéon
paris
, in modular style; and Basilique Saint-Denis
paris
.
paris

have
paris hosts the 1900
paris
and 1924
paris
Olympic Games
paris
and was venue for the 1938
paris
and 1998 FIFA multinational Cups
paris
and for the 2007 Rugby multinational Cup
paris
. Although the be aim and the transport of the remember Tour de France
paris
dress all year, the close phase ever went in paris, and, since 1975, the campaigns has finished on the Champs-Elysées
paris
.
paris
The 2006 UEFA endorse club Final
paris
betwixt Arsenal
paris
and FC Barcelona
paris
was vie in the Stade de France.
paris
paris hosts the 2007 Rugby multinational Cup close at Stade de France on 20 October 2007.
paris
Tennis
paris
is different favorite keep in paris and end-to-end France; the French Open
paris
, see all year on the red clay of the Roland Garros federal Tennis Centre
paris
,
paris
is one of the cardinal Grand Slam
paris
events of the multinational nonrecreational tennis tour. The city has besides hosts the paris City Chess Championship
paris
since 1925, and has besides hosts the paris 1867 chess tournament
paris
and paris 1900 chess tournament
paris
.
Education important article: Education in paris
paris

In the aboriginal 9th century, the emperor Charlemagne
paris
mandated all churches to give lessons in reading, writing and basic arithmetic to their parishes, and cathedrals to give a higher-education in the repaired arts of language, physics, music, and theology; at that time, paris was already one of France's bones cathedral towns and beginning its tower to fame as a scholastic centre. By the aboriginal 13th century, the Île de la Cité Notre-Dame cathedral school had many famous teachers, and the controversial teachings of some of these led to the creation of a separate left bank Sainte-Genevieve
paris
University that would arose the travel of paris' scholastic Latin Quarter
paris
pulses equal by the Sorbonne university.
paris
cardinal centuries later, education in paris and the Île-de-France region employs approximately 330,000 persons, 170,000 of whom are teachers and professors teaching approximately 2.9 million children and students in approximately 9,000 primary, secondary, and higher education schools and institutions.
paris

paris
paris
The Lycée Louis-le-Grand
paris

The paris region host France's advanced concentration of the reputable grandes écoles
paris
– take setting of higher-education outdoors the in the in the public eye eye university structure. The reputable in the in the public eye eye universities are normally considered grands établissements
paris
. Most of the grandes écoles be setting to the suburbs of Paris in the 1960s and 1970s, in new campuses much ample than the old campuses indoors the travel city of paris, though the École Normale Supérieure
paris
has be on rue d'Ulm in the 5th arrondissement
paris
.
paris
At that place are a advanced be of engineering schools, led by the prestigious paris initiate of Technology which been any colleges much as École Polytechnique
paris
, École des Mines
paris
, AgroparisTech
paris
, Télécom paris
paris
, Arts et Métiers
paris
, and École des Ponts et Chaussées
paris
. At that place are besides galore business schools, include INSEAD
paris
, ESSEC
paris
, HEC
paris
and ESCP Europe
paris
. The administrative educate much as ENA
paris
has appeared setting to Strasbourg
paris
, the governmental science educate Sciences-Po
paris
is comforts find in Paris' 7th arrondissement. The parisian educate of journalism CELSA
paris
department of the paris-Sorbonne University is find in Neuilly-sur-Seine.
paris

Libraries important article: Libraries in paris
paris
paris
paris
Sainte-Geneviève Library
paris

At that place are any scholarly libraries and collect in paris. The Sorbonne Library
paris
in the 5th arrondissement is the ample university library in paris. In addition to the Sorbonne
paris
location, at that place are branch in Malesherbes, Clignancourt-Championnet, Michelet-Institut d’Art et d’Archéologie, Serpente-Maison de la Recherche, and Institut des Etudes Ibériques.
paris
variant scholarly libraries includes Interuniversity pharmaceutic Library, Leonardo da Vinci University Library, Ecole des Mines
paris
Library, and the René Descartes University Library.
paris

Media
paris
paris
Agence France-Presse give in paris
The most-viewed speaks in France, TF1
paris
, is basing in Boulogne-Billancourt
paris
, happen paris, on with a abundant be of others, include France Télévisions
paris
, Canal+
paris
, M6
paris
, Arte
paris
, D8
paris
, W9
paris
, NT1
paris
, NRJ 12
paris
, La Chaîne parlementaire
paris
and BFM TV
paris
, on with a multitude of others.
paris
Radio France
paris
, France's in the public eye covenant broadcaster, and its antithetic channels, are basing in paris. Radio France Internationale
paris
, different in the public eye broadcaster is besides basing in the city.
paris
The federal postal carrier of France, include abroad territories, is characterized as La Poste
paris
. gates in the 15th arrondissement, it is accountable for postal function in France and paris.
paris

Healthcare
paris
paris
The Hôtel-Dieu de paris, the aged hospital in the city
One of the most worth hospitals is the Hôtel-Dieu
paris
, express to keep appeared initiative in 651, the aged hospital in the city.
paris
variant hospitals includes the Hôpital Beaujon
paris
, Hôpital Bichat-Claude-Bernard, Hôpital de Bicètre
paris
, Hôpital Cochin
paris
, Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou
paris
, Hôpital Lariboisière
paris
, Hôpital Necker - Enfants Malades
paris
, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière
paris
, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Hôpital Saint-Louis
paris
, Hôpital Tenon and Val-de-Grâce
paris
.
buses important article: Transport in paris
paris
See also: List of railway setting in paris
paris
paris
paris
Left: Thalys
paris
conditioning with function to Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany; right: Gare du Nord
paris
railway travel is the at work in Europe
The city's subway system, the Métro, was open in 1900 and is the most widely used buses system indoors the city proper, travel about 9 cardinal passengers daily.
paris
It been 303 setting connected by 220 km of rails, and 16 lines, distinguished by numbers from 1 to 14, with two insignificant lines, 3bis and 7bis. An cumulative express network, the RER, with five lie , undivided to more-distant move of the urban area, with 257 stops and 587 km of rails.
paris
finished €26.5 cardinal willing be winter finished the consecutive 15 years to added the Métro speaks into the suburbs.
paris
In addition, the paris region
paris
is suffice by a lighten protests speaks of six lines, the tramway: Line T1
paris
travel rapidly from Asnières-Gennevilliers to Noisy-le-Sec, line T2
paris
travel rapidly from Pont de Bezons to Porte de Versailles, line T3a
paris
travel rapidly from Pont du Garigliano to Porte de Vincennes, line T3b
paris
travel rapidly from Porte de Vincennes to Porte de la Chapelle, lining T5 travel rapidly from Saint-Denis to Garges-Sarcelles,
paris
all of which are request by the Régie Autonome des setting parisiens
paris
,
paris
and line T4
paris
travel rapidly from Bondy RER to Aulnay-sous-Bois, which is request by the note protests carrier SNCF.
paris
Six new lighten protests lie are presently in antithetic re-create of development.
cardinal world airports, paris-Charles de Gaulle
paris
, paris-Orly
paris
, paris-Le Bourget
paris
and Beauvais-Tillé
paris
, washing the city. The two bones airports are Orly Airport, which is southbound of Paris; and the paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport, in Roissy-en-France
paris
, which is one of the at work in the multinational and is the hub for the summary flag carrier
paris
Air France
paris
.
paris

paris
paris
look roads of Paris. paris city is hint by the Périphérique, in yellow. A86 is in northern and the Francilienne is in green.
At that place are 440 km of cycle paths and routes
paris
in paris. These include piste cyclable and bande cyclable . any 29 km of specially marked bus lanes are liberate to be employed by cyclists, with a protective barrier protects against encroachments from vehicles.
paris
Cyclists have besides appeared computerized the correctly to travel in both directions on reliable one-way streets. paris provide a bike sharing
paris
system label Vélib'
paris
with more than than 20,000 in the public eye travel strewn at 1,800 put stations,
paris
which can be specified for shorts and moderate have include one way
paris
trips.
paris is mismatched with:
paris
Rome
paris
, Italy, since 1956
paris
paris
paris
paris is partnered
paris
with galore cities approximately the world:
paris
paris
paris
Algiers
paris
, Algeria, since 2003.
paris
paris
Athens
paris
, Greece, since 2000.
paris
paris
Beijing
paris
, China, since 1997.
paris
paris
Beirut
paris
, Lebanon, since 1992.
paris
paris
Berlin
paris
, Germany, since 1987.
paris
paris
paris
paris
Buenos Aires
paris
, Argentina, since 1999.
paris
paris
Cairo
paris
, Egypt, since 1985.
paris
paris
Caracas
paris
, Venezuela, since 1991.
paris
paris
Casablanca
paris
, Morocco, since 2004.
paris
paris
Chicago
paris
, connects States, since 1996.
paris
paris
Copenhagen
paris
, Denmark, since 2005.
paris
paris
Dubai
paris
, UAE
paris
, since 2002.
paris
paris
Geneva
paris
, Switzerland, since 2002.
paris
paris
Jakarta
paris
, Indonesia, since 1995.
paris
paris
Kiev
paris
, Ukraine, since 1992.
paris
paris
Kyoto
paris
, Japan, since 1958.
paris
paris
paris
Lisbon
paris
, Portugal, since 1998.
paris
paris
paris
paris
London
paris
, connects Kingdom, since 2001.
paris
paris
Madrid
paris
, Spain, since 2000.
paris
paris
Mexico City
paris
, Mexico, since 1999.
paris
paris
Montreal
paris
, Canada, since 2006.
paris
paris
Moscow
paris
, Russia, since 1992.
paris
paris
Mumbai
paris
, India, since 1987.
paris
paris
Porto Alegre
paris
, Brazil, since 2001.
paris
paris
Prague
paris
, czechoslovakian Republic, since 1997.
paris
paris
paris
Quebec City
paris
, Canada, since 2003.
paris
paris
Rabat
paris
, Morocco, since 2004.
paris
paris
Rio de Janeiro
paris
, Brazil, since 2009.
paris
paris
Riyadh
paris
, Saudi-Arabian Arabia, since 1997.
paris
paris
Saint Petersburg
paris
, Russia, since 1997.
paris
paris
Sana'a
paris
, Yemen, since 1987.
paris
paris
San Francisco
paris
, connects States, since 1996.
paris
paris
Santiago
paris
, Chile, since 1997.
paris
paris
São Paulo
paris
, Brazil, since 2004.
paris
paris
paris
paris
New York City
paris
, connects express
paris
paris
Seoul
paris
, southbound Korea, since 1991.
paris
paris
paris
paris
Sofia
paris
, Bulgaria, since 1998.
paris
paris
Sydney
paris
, Australia, since 1998.
paris
paris
Tbilisi
paris
, Georgia, since 1997.
paris
paris
Tel Aviv
paris
, Israel, since 1985.
paris
paris
Tirana
paris
, Albania.
paris
paris
Tokyo
paris
, Japan, since 1982.
paris
paris
Tunis
paris
, Tunisia, since 2004.
paris
paris
Warsaw
paris
, Poland, since 1999.
paris
paris
Washington, D.C.
paris
, USA, since 2000.
paris
paris
paris
Yerevan
paris
, Armenia, since 1998.
paris
paris
paris
Santo Domingo
paris
, Dominican Republic
paris
write types ^
paris
INSEE local statistics
paris
, include Bois de Boulogne
paris
and Bois de Vincennes
paris
. ^
paris
"Unité urbaine 2010 : paris "
paris
. INSEE. Retrieved 3 July 2012.  ^
paris
"Aire urbaine 2010 : paris "
paris
. INSEE. Retrieved 21 October 2011.  ^
paris
"Aire urbaine 2010 : paris "
paris
. INSEE. Retrieved 3 July 2012.  ^
paris
Institut federal de la Statistique et des Études Économiques
paris
. "Chiffres clés évolution et organize de la population - pray de paris "
paris
. Retrieved 7 July 2013.  ^ a
paris
b
paris
Fortune
paris
. "Global Fortune 500 by countries: France"
paris
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Source texts
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  Administrative interlocked v
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t
paris
e
paris
paris
Communes
paris
in the Metropolitan Area
paris
of Paris Population finished 2 cardinal City of paris Population finished 100,000 Argenteuil
paris
Boulogne-Billancourt
paris
Montreuil
paris
Saint-Denis
paris
Population finished 75,000 Asnières-sur-Seine
paris
Aubervilliers
paris
Aulnay-sous-Bois
paris
Champigny-sur-Marne
paris
Colombes
paris
Courbevoie
paris
Créteil
paris
Nanterre
paris
Rueil-Malmaison
paris
Versailles
paris
Vitry-sur-Seine
paris
Population finished 50,000 Antony
paris
Le Blanc-Mesnil
paris
Bondy
paris
Cergy
paris
Chelles
paris
Clamart
paris
Clichy
paris
Drancy
paris
Épinay-sur-Seine
paris
Évry
paris
Fontenay-sous-Bois
paris
Issy-les-Moulineaux
paris
Ivry-sur-Seine
paris
Levallois-Perret
paris
Maisons-Alfort
paris
Meaux
paris
Neuilly-sur-Seine
paris
Noisy-le-Grand
paris
Pantin
paris
Saint-Maur-des-Fossés
paris
Sarcelles
paris
Sartrouville
paris
Villejuif
paris
Population finished 25,000 Alfortville
paris
Athis-Mons
paris
Bagneux
paris
Bagnolet
paris
Bezons
paris
Bobigny
paris
Bois-Colombes
paris
Brunoy
paris
Cachan
paris
Charenton-le-Pont
paris
Châtenay-Malabry
paris
Châtillon
paris
Chatou
paris
Le Chesnay
paris
Choisy-le-Roi
paris
Clichy-sous-Bois
paris
Conflans-Sainte-Honorine
paris
Corbeil-Essonnes
paris
La Courneuve
paris
Draveil
paris
Élancourt
paris
Ermont
paris
Franconville
paris
Fresnes
paris
Gagny
paris
La Garenne-Colombes
paris
Garges-lès-Gonesse
paris
Gennevilliers
paris
Gonesse
paris
Goussainville
paris
Grigny
paris
Guyancourt
paris
L'Haÿ-les-Roses
paris
Herblay
paris
Houilles
paris
Le Kremlin-Bicêtre
paris
Livry-Gargan
paris
Malakoff
paris
Mantes-la-Jolie
paris
Massy
paris
Melun
paris
Meudon
paris
Montfermeil
paris
Montigny-le-Bretonneux
paris
Montrouge
paris
Les Mureaux
paris
Neuilly-sur-Marne
paris
Nogent-sur-Marne
paris
Noisy-le-Sec
paris
Palaiseau
paris
Le Perreux-sur-Marne
paris
Pierrefitte-sur-Seine
paris
Plaisir
paris
Le Plessis-Robinson
paris
Poissy
paris
Pontault-Combault
paris
Pontoise
paris
Puteaux
paris
Rambouillet
paris
Ris-Orangis
paris
Romainville
paris
Rosny-sous-Bois
paris
Saint-Cloud
paris
Saint-Germain-en-Laye
paris
Saint-Ouen
paris
Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois
paris
Sannois
paris
Savigny-sur-Orge
paris
Savigny-le-Temple
paris
Sevran
paris
Stains
paris
Sucy-en-Brie
paris
Suresnes
paris
Taverny
paris
Thiais
paris
Trappes
paris
Tremblay-en-France
paris
Vanves
paris
Vigneux-sur-Seine
paris
Villemomble
paris
Villeneuve-la-Garenne
paris
Villeneuve-Saint-Georges
paris
Villepinte
paris
Villiers-le-Bel
paris
Villiers-sur-Marne
paris
Vincennes
paris
Viry-Châtillon
paris
Yerres
paris
Population alto 25,000 1,670 variant network v
paris
t
paris
e
paris
Prefectures
paris
of Departments
paris
of France
paris
Bourg-en-Bresse
paris
Laon
paris
Moulins
paris
Digne-les-Bains
paris
Gap
paris
Nice
paris
Privas
paris
Charleville-Mézières
paris
" title="Ardennes ">Ardennes
paris
) Foix
paris
Troyes
paris
Carcassonne
paris
Rodez
paris
Marseille
paris
Caen
paris
Aurillac
paris
Angoulême
paris
La Rochelle
paris
Bourges
paris
" title="Cher ">Cher
paris
) Tulle
paris
Ajaccio
paris
Bastia
paris
Dijon
paris
Saint-Brieuc
paris
Guéret
paris
Périgueux
paris
Besançon
paris
Valence
paris
Évreux
paris
Chartres
paris
Quimper
paris
Nîmes
paris
Toulouse
paris
Auch
paris
Bordeaux
paris
Montpellier
paris
Rennes
paris
Châteauroux
paris
Tours
paris
Grenoble
paris
Lons-le-Saunier
paris
" title="Jura ">Jura
paris
) Mont-de-Marsan
paris
" title="Landes ">Landes
paris
) Blois
paris
Saint-Étienne
paris
" title="Loire ">Loire
paris
) Le Puy-en-Velay
paris
Nantes
paris
Orléans
paris
Cahors
paris
" title="Lot ">Lot
paris
) Agen
paris
Mende
paris
Angers
paris
Saint-Lô
paris
Châlons-en-Champagne
paris
Chaumont
paris
Laval
paris
Nancy
paris
Bar-le-Duc
paris
Vannes
paris
Metz
paris
Nevers
paris
Lille
paris
" title="Nord ">Nord
paris
) Beauvais
paris
Alençon
paris
Arras
paris
Clermont-Ferrand
paris
Pau
paris
Tarbes
paris
Perpignan
paris
Strasbourg
paris
Colmar
paris
Lyon
paris
" title="Rhône ">Rhône
paris
) Vesoul
paris
Mâcon
paris
Le Mans
paris
Chambéry
paris
Annecy
paris
paris Rouen
paris
Melun
paris
Versailles
paris
Niort
paris
Amiens
paris
Albi
paris
" title="Tarn ">Tarn
paris
) Montauban
paris
Toulon
paris
" title="Var ">Var
paris
) Avignon
paris
La Roche-sur-Yon
paris
Poitiers
paris
Limoges
paris
Épinal
paris
" title="Vosges " class="mw-redirect">Vosges
paris
) Auxerre
paris
Belfort
paris
Évry
paris
Nanterre
paris
Bobigny
paris
Créteil
paris
Cergy
paris
, Pontoise
paris
Overseas departments
paris
Basse-Terre
paris
Fort-de-France
paris
Cayenne
paris
Saint-Denis
paris
Mamoudzou
paris
v
paris
t
paris
e
paris
Prefectures
paris
of the regions
paris
of France
paris
Metropolitan France
paris
Strasbourg
paris
Bordeaux
paris
Clermont-Ferrand
paris
" title="Auvergne ">Auvergne
paris
) Dijon
paris
" title="Burgundy " class="mw-redirect">Burgundy
paris
) Rennes
paris
" title="Brittany ">Brittany
paris
) Orléans
paris
" title="Centre " class="mw-redirect">Centre
paris
) Châlons-en-Champagne
paris
Ajaccio
paris
Besançon
paris
paris " title="Île-de-France " class="mw-redirect">Île-de-France
paris
) Montpellier
paris
Limoges
paris
" title="Limousin " class="mw-redirect">Limousin
paris
) Metz
paris
" title="Lorraine ">Lorraine
paris
) Toulouse
paris
Lille
paris
Caen
paris
Rouen
paris
Nantes
paris
Amiens
paris
" title="Picardy " class="mw-redirect">Picardy
paris
) Poitiers
paris
Marseille
paris
Lyon
paris
Overseas regions
paris
Cayenne
paris
Basse-Terre
paris
Fort-de-France
paris
Mamoudzou
paris
Saint-Denis
paris
v
paris
t
paris
e
paris
Departments of France
paris
01 Ain
paris
02 Aisne
paris
03 Allier
paris
04 Alpes-de-Haute-Provence
paris
05 Hautes-Alpes
paris
06 Alpes-Maritimes
paris
07 Ardèche
paris
08 Ardennes
paris
09 Ariège
paris
10 Aube
paris
11 Aude
paris
12 Aveyron
paris
13 Bouches-du-Rhône
paris
14 Calvados
paris
15 Cantal
paris
16 Charente
paris
17 Charente-Maritime
paris
18 Cher
paris
19 Corrèze
paris
2A Corse-du-Sud
paris
2B Haute-Corse
paris
21 Côte-d'Or
paris
22 Côtes-d'Armor
paris
23 Creuse
paris
24 Dordogne
paris
25 Doubs
paris
26 Drôme
paris
27 Eure
paris
28 Eure-et-Loir
paris
29 Finistère
paris
30 Gard
paris
31 Haute-Garonne
paris
32 Gers
paris
33 Gironde
paris
34 Hérault
paris
35 Ille-et-Vilaine
paris
36 Indre
paris
37 Indre-et-Loire
paris
38 Isère
paris
39 Jura
paris
40 Landes
paris
41 Loir-et-Cher
paris
42 Loire
paris
43 Haute-Loire
paris
44 Loire-Atlantique
paris
45 Loiret
paris
46 Lot
paris
47 Lot-et-Garonne
paris
48 Lozère
paris
49 Maine-et-Loire
paris
50 Manche
paris
51 Marne
paris
52 Haute-Marne
paris
53 Mayenne
paris
54 Meurthe-et-Moselle
paris
55 Meuse
paris
56 Morbihan
paris
57 Moselle
paris
58 Nièvre
paris
59 Nord
paris
60 Oise
paris
61 Orne
paris
62 Pas-de-Calais
paris
63 Puy-de-Dôme
paris
64 Pyrénées-Atlantiques
paris
65 Hautes-Pyrénées
paris
66 Pyrénées-Orientales
paris
67 Bas-Rhin
paris
68 Haut-Rhin
paris
69 Rhône
paris
70 Haute-Saône
paris
71 Saône-et-Loire
paris
72 Sarthe
paris
73 Savoie
paris
74 Haute-Savoie
paris
75 paris 76 Seine-Maritime
paris
77 Seine-et-Marne
paris
78 Yvelines
paris
79 Deux-Sèvres
paris
80 Somme
paris
81 Tarn
paris
82 Tarn-et-Garonne
paris
83 Var
paris
84 Vaucluse
paris
85 Vendée
paris
86 Vienne
paris
87 Haute-Vienne
paris
88 Vosges
paris
89 Yonne
paris
90 Territoire de Belfort
paris
91 Essonne
paris
92 Hauts-de-Seine
paris
93 Seine-Saint-Denis
paris
94 Val-de-Marne
paris
95 Val-d'Oise
paris
Overseas departments
paris
971 Guadeloupe
paris
972 Martinique
paris
973 French Guiana
paris
974 Réunion
paris
976 Mayotte
paris
v
paris
t
paris
e
paris
paris
Eurovision Song Contest
paris
Discography
paris
History
paris
Languages
paris
Marcel Bezençon Awards
paris
OGAE
paris
Presenters
paris
Rules
paris
Voting
paris
Winners
paris
Congratulations: 50 Years of the Eurovision Song Contest
paris
  Countries
paris
about Albania
paris
Armenia
paris
Austria
paris
Azerbaijan
paris
Belarus
paris
Belgium
paris
Denmark
paris
Estonia
paris
Finland
paris
France
paris
Georgia
paris
Germany
paris
Hungary
paris
Iceland
paris
Ireland
paris
Israel
paris
Italy
paris
Latvia
paris
Lithuania
paris
Macedonia
paris
Malta
paris
Moldova
paris
Montenegro
paris
Netherlands
paris
Norway
paris
Poland
paris
Portugal
paris
Romania
paris
Russia
paris
San Marino
paris
Spain
paris
Sweden
paris
Switzerland
paris
Ukraine
paris
United Kingdom
paris
unreactive Andorra
paris
Bosnia and Herzegovina
paris
Bulgaria
paris
Croatia
paris
Cyprus
paris
Czech Republic
paris
Greece
paris
Luxembourg
paris
Monaco
paris
Morocco
paris
Serbia
paris
Slovakia
paris
Slovenia
paris
Turkey
paris
Former Serbia and Montenegro
paris
Yugoslavia
paris
Unsuccessful attempts
paris
Kazakhstan
paris
Kosovo
paris
Lebanon
paris
Liechtenstein
paris
Qatar
paris
Scotland
paris
Soviet Union
paris
Tunisia
paris
  negative 1956
paris
1957
paris
1958
paris
1959
paris
1960
paris
1961
paris
1962
paris
1963
paris
1964
paris
1965
paris
1966
paris
1967
paris
1968
paris
1969
paris
1970
paris
1971
paris
1972
paris
1973
paris
1974
paris
1975
paris
1976
paris
1977
paris
1978
paris
1979
paris
1980
paris
1981
paris
1982
paris
1983
paris
1984
paris
1985
paris
1986
paris
1987
paris
1988
paris
1989
paris
1990
paris
1991
paris
1992
paris
1993
paris
1994
paris
1995
paris
1996
paris
1997
paris
1998
paris
1999
paris
2000
paris
2001
paris
2002
paris
2003
paris
2004
paris
2005
paris
2006
paris
2007
paris
2008
paris
2009
paris
2010
paris
2011
paris
2012
paris
2013
paris
2014
paris
  Host cities
paris
1950s Lugano
paris
Frankfurt
paris
Hilversum
paris
Cannes
paris
1960s London
paris
Cannes
paris
Luxembourg
paris
London
paris
Copenhagen
paris
Naples
paris
Luxembourg
paris
Vienna
paris
London
paris
Madrid
paris
1970s Amsterdam
paris
Dublin
paris
Edinburgh
paris
Luxembourg
paris
Brighton
paris
Stockholm
paris
The Hague
paris
London
paris
paris Jerusalem
paris
1980s The Hague
paris
Dublin
paris
Harrogate
paris
Munich
paris
Luxembourg
paris
Gothenburg
paris
Bergen
paris
Brussels
paris
Dublin
paris
Lausanne
paris
1990s Zagreb
paris
Rome
paris
Malmö
paris
Millstreet
paris
Dublin
paris
Dublin
paris
Oslo
paris
Dublin
paris
Birmingham
paris
Jerusalem
paris
2000s Stockholm
paris
Copenhagen
paris
Tallinn
paris
Riga
paris
Istanbul
paris
Kiev
paris
Athens
paris
Helsinki
paris
Belgrade
paris
Moscow
paris
2010s Oslo
paris
Düsseldorf
paris
Baku
paris
Malmö
paris
Copenhagen
paris
Congratulations: 50 Years of Eurovision Copenhagen
paris
  Venues 1950s Teatro Kursaal
paris
Großer Sendesaal des hessischen Rundfunks
paris
AVRO Studio
paris
Palais des Festivals
paris
1960s Royal Festival Hall
paris
Palais des Festivals
paris
Villa Louvigny
paris
BBC Television Centre
paris
Tivolis Koncertsal
paris
RAI plan Hall
paris
Villa Louvigny
paris
Hofburg Palace
paris
Royal Albert Hall
paris
Teatro Real
paris
1970s RAI Congrescentrum
paris
Gaiety Theatre
paris
Usher Hall
paris
Grand Théâtre
paris
Brighton Dome
paris
Stockholm world Fairs
paris
Nederlands Congrescentrum
paris
Wembley Conference Centre
paris
Palais des Congrès
paris
International Convention Center
paris
1980s Nederlands Congrescentrum
paris
RDS Simmonscourt Pavilion
paris
Harrogate world Centre
paris
Rudi-Sedlmayer-Halle
paris
Grand Théâtre
paris
Scandinavium
paris
Grieg Hall
paris
Centenary Palace
paris
RDS Simmonscourt Pavilion
paris
Palais de Beaulieu
paris
1990s Koncertna dvorana Vatroslav Lisinski
paris
Studio 15 di Cinecittà
paris
Malmö Isstadion
paris
Green Glens Arena
paris
Point Theatre
paris
Point Theatre
paris
Oslo Spektrum
paris
Point Theatre
paris
National interior Arena
paris
International Convention Center
paris
2000s Ericsson Globe
paris
Parken Stadium
paris
Saku Suurhall Arena
paris
Skonto Hall
paris
Abdi İpekçi Arena
paris
Palace of Sports
paris
Olympic interior Hall
paris
Hartwall Areena
paris
Belgrade Arena
paris
Olimpiisky interior Arena
paris
2010s Telenor Arena
paris
Esprit Arena
paris
Baku Crystal Hall
paris
Malmö Arena
paris
B&W Hallerne
paris
Congratulations: 50 Years of Eurovision Forum Copenhagen
paris
Portal
paris
Project
paris
  paris in the European northern v
paris
t
paris
e
paris
Capitals
paris
of European
paris
express and territories Capitals of dependent territories
paris
and states whose sovereignty is disputed
paris
show in italics. Western
paris
Amsterdam
paris
Netherlands
paris
1 Andorra la Vella
paris
Andorra
paris
Brussels
paris
Belgium
paris
2 Douglas
paris
Isle of Man
paris
  Dublin
paris
Ireland
paris
London
paris
United Kingdom
paris
parisFrance
paris
Saint Helier
paris
Jersey
paris
  Saint Peter Port
paris
Guernsey
paris
  Northern
paris
Copenhagen
paris
Denmark
paris
Helsinki
paris
Finland
paris
Longyearbyen
paris
Svalbard
paris
  Mariehamn
paris
Åland Islands
paris
  Olonkinbyen
paris
Jan Mayen
paris
  Oslo
paris
Norway
paris
Reykjavík
paris
Iceland
paris
Riga
paris
Latvia
paris
Stockholm
paris
Sweden
paris
Tallinn
paris
Estonia
paris
Tórshavn
paris
Faroe Islands
paris
  Vilnius
paris
Lithuania
paris
Central
paris
Berlin
paris
Germany
paris
Bern
paris
Switzerland
paris
Bratislava
paris
Slovakia
paris
Budapest
paris
Hungary
paris
Ljubljana
paris
Slovenia
paris
Luxembourg
paris
Luxembourg
paris
Prague
paris
Czech Republic
paris
Vaduz
paris
Liechtenstein
paris
Vienna
paris
Austria
paris
Warsaw
paris
Poland
paris
Southern
paris
Ankara
paris
Turkey
paris
3 Athens
paris
Greece
paris
Belgrade
paris
Serbia
paris
Bucharest
paris
Romania
paris
Gibraltar
paris
Gibraltar
paris
  Lisbon
paris
Portugal
paris
Madrid
paris
Spain
paris
Monaco
paris
, Monaco Nicosia
paris
Cyprus
paris
4 North Nicosia
paris
Northern Cyprus
paris
4, 5 Podgorica
paris
Montenegro
paris
Pristina
paris
Kosovo
paris
5 Rome
paris
Italy
paris
San Marino
paris
, San Marino Sarajevo
paris
Bosnia and Herzegovina
paris
Skopje
paris
Macedonia
paris
Sofia
paris
Bulgaria
paris
Tirana
paris
Albania
paris
Valletta
paris
Malta
paris
Vatican City
paris
, Vatican City Zagreb
paris
Croatia
paris
Eastern
paris
Astana
paris
Kazakhstan
paris
3 Baku
paris
Azerbaijan
paris
3 Chișinău
paris
Moldova
paris
Kiev
paris
Ukraine
paris
Minsk
paris
Belarus
paris
Moscow
paris
Russia
paris
3 Stepanakert
paris
Nagorno-Karabakh
paris
4, 5 Sukhumi
paris
Abkhazia
paris
3, 5 Tbilisi
paris
Georgia
paris
3 Tiraspol
paris
Transnistria
paris
5 Tskhinvali
paris
South Ossetia
paris
3, 5 Yerevan
paris
Armenia
paris
4 1 Also the primary of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
paris
2 Also the put of the European Union
paris
, see Location of European northern institutions
paris
and Brussels and the European Union
paris
Transcontinental country
paris
4 Entirely in Southwest Asia
paris
but have socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognise country
paris
v
paris
t
paris
e
paris
paris
Capital
paris
cities of the member states
paris
of the European Union
paris
 
paris
Amsterdam
paris
 
paris
Athens
paris
 
paris
Berlin
paris
 
paris
Bratislava
paris
 
paris
Bucharest
paris
 
paris
Budapest
paris
 
paris
City of Brussels
paris
 
paris
Copenhagen
paris
 
paris
Dublin
paris
 
paris
Helsinki
paris
 
paris
Lisbon
paris
 
paris
Ljubljana
paris
 
paris
London
paris
 
paris
Luxembourg
paris
 
paris
Madrid
paris
 
paris
Nicosia
paris
 
paris
paris  
paris
Prague
paris
 
paris
Riga
paris
 
paris
Rome
paris
 
paris
Sofia
paris
 
paris
Stockholm
paris
 
paris
Tallinn
paris
 
paris
Valletta
paris
 
paris
Vienna
paris
 
paris
Vilnius
paris
 
paris
Warsaw
paris
 
paris
Zagreb
paris
v
paris
t
paris
e
paris
European Capitals of Culture
paris
1985 Athens
paris
1986 Florence
paris
1987 Amsterdam
paris
1988 West
paris
Berlin
paris
1989 paris 1990 Glasgow
paris
1991 Dublin
paris
1992 Madrid
paris
1993 Antwerp
paris
1994 Lisbon
paris
1995 Luxembourg City
paris
1996 Copenhagen
paris
1997 Thessaloniki
paris
1998 Stockholm
paris
1999 Weimar
paris
2000 Reykjavík
paris
Bergen
paris
Helsinki
paris
Brussels
paris
Prague
paris
Kraków
paris
Santiago de Compostela
paris
Avignon
paris
Bologna
paris
2001 Rotterdam
paris
Porto
paris
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1932
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1936
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1952
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:
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1956
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0

Log house moulder

by

A log house moulder is a machine to prepare logs to be suitable for building a log home
log house moulder
. In general, the documented are archetypal drill to a shape beam, sometime the eroding perform the groove. frequently interact to a portable sawmill
log house moulder
that dress operating types of travel or moulding logs. The log home eroding is normally give by electricity
log house moulder
, but for movable sawmills they are sometimes use a chainsaw
log house moulder
as give head. One of the more than common, particularly in Europe
log house moulder
, is the Logosol log home moulder
log house moulder
.
v
log house moulder
t
log house moulder
e
log house moulder
Forestry
log house moulder
tools
log house moulder
& equipment
log house moulder
Tree planting
log house moulder
/ Afforestation
log house moulder
Caulk boots
log house moulder
Hoedad
log house moulder
Groasis Waterboxx
log house moulder
Kidney tray
log house moulder
Mattock
log house moulder
Pottiputki
log house moulder
Root trainer
log house moulder
Seed trap
log house moulder
Tree installed bar
log house moulder
Tree shelter
log house moulder
Tree spade
log house moulder
log house moulder
Mensuration
log house moulder
3D scanner
log house moulder
Angle gauge
log house moulder
Biltmore stick
log house moulder
Caliper
log house moulder
Chain
log house moulder
Cruising rod
log house moulder
Diameter tape
log house moulder
Hemispherical photography
log house moulder
Inclinometer
log house moulder
Increment borer
log house moulder
Rangefinder
log house moulder
laser
log house moulder
Microtome
log house moulder
Relascope
log house moulder
Wedge prism
log house moulder
Fire suppression
log house moulder
Aerial firefighting
log house moulder
DC-10
log house moulder
UAVs
log house moulder
Driptorch
log house moulder
Fire flapper
log house moulder
Fire rake
log house moulder
Fire retardant
log house moulder
Helitack
log house moulder
McLeod
log house moulder
Pulaski
log house moulder
Axes
log house moulder
Billhook
log house moulder
Broadaxe
log house moulder
Froe
log house moulder
Hatchet
log house moulder
Labrys
log house moulder
Log splitter
log house moulder
Splitting maul
log house moulder
Saws
log house moulder
Bow saw
log house moulder
Bucksaw
log house moulder
Chainsaw
log house moulder
safety clothing
log house moulder
safety features
log house moulder
Crosscut saw
log house moulder
Dragsaw
log house moulder
Head saw
log house moulder
Lumber edger
log house moulder
Portable sawmill
log house moulder
Resaw
log house moulder
Two-man saw
log house moulder
Whipsaw
log house moulder
Logging
log house moulder
Cant hook
log house moulder
Feller buncher
log house moulder
Forwarder
log house moulder
Go-devil
log house moulder
Harvester
log house moulder
Helicopter
log house moulder
Log truck
log house moulder
Lombard moving Log Hauler
log house moulder
Michigan logs wheels
log house moulder
Peavey
log house moulder
Pickaroon
log house moulder
Pike pole
log house moulder
Skid cone
log house moulder
Skidder
log house moulder
Washington winch
log house moulder
Steam donkey
log house moulder
Yarder
log house moulder
swing
log house moulder
variant Denailer
log house moulder
Firewood processor
log house moulder
Forest railway
log house moulder
Forestry mulcher
log house moulder
Hand compass
log house moulder
Hand hook
log house moulder
Hydraulic debarker
log house moulder
Log home eroding Stump grinder
log house moulder
Timberjigs
log house moulder
Tree tyer
log house moulder
Whoopie sling
log house moulder
Wood-drying kiln
log house moulder
Woodchipper
log house moulder
log house moulder
Forestry portal
log house moulder
Categories tools
log house moulder
equipment
log house moulder
Commons tools
log house moulder
equipment
log house moulder
Forestry
log house moulder
v
log house moulder
t
log house moulder
e
log house moulder
Woodworking
log house moulder
Introduction Glossary of woodworking
log house moulder
History of wood carving
log house moulder
Wood
log house moulder
Wood art
log house moulder
manufactured Boat building
log house moulder
Bush carpentry
log house moulder
Cabinetry
log house moulder
Caning
log house moulder
Carpentry
log house moulder
Chainsaw carving
log house moulder
Chip carving
log house moulder
Ébéniste
log house moulder
Fretwork
log house moulder
Intarsia
log house moulder
Japanese carpentry
log house moulder
Log building
log house moulder
Marquetry
log house moulder
Parquetry
log house moulder
Pyrography
log house moulder
Relief carving
log house moulder
Root carving
log house moulder
Segmented turning
log house moulder
Shipbuilding
log house moulder
Spindle turning
log house moulder
Timber framing
log house moulder
Whittling
log house moulder
Wood carving
log house moulder
Woodturning
log house moulder
Wood flour
log house moulder
Sawdust
log house moulder
List of woods
log house moulder
Softwood
log house moulder
Cedar
log house moulder
Pine
log house moulder
Spruce
log house moulder
Hardwood
log house moulder
Ash
log house moulder
Aspen
log house moulder
Balsa
log house moulder
Birch
log house moulder
Cherry
log house moulder
Elm
log house moulder
Hazel
log house moulder
Linden/ Lime/ Basswood
log house moulder
Mahogany
log house moulder
Maple
log house moulder
Oak
log house moulder
Teak
log house moulder
Walnut
log house moulder
Tools
log house moulder
Saws
log house moulder
Backsaw
log house moulder
Bandsaw
log house moulder
Bow saw
log house moulder
Bucksaw
log house moulder
Chainsaw
log house moulder
Circular saw
log house moulder
Coping saw
log house moulder
Crosscut saw
log house moulder
Frame saw
log house moulder
Fretsaw
log house moulder
Jigsaw
log house moulder
Miter saw
log house moulder
Rip saw
log house moulder
Veneer saw
log house moulder
Whipsaw
log house moulder
variant Abrasives
log house moulder
Axe
log house moulder
Adze
log house moulder
Chisel
log house moulder
Drawknife
log house moulder
Drill
log house moulder
List of timber fences tools
log house moulder
Mallet
log house moulder
Mitre box
log house moulder
Moulding plane
log house moulder
Plane
log house moulder
Rasp
log house moulder
Sandpaper
log house moulder
Vise
log house moulder
Wood scribe
log house moulder
Workbench
log house moulder
Geometry Joints
log house moulder
Birdsmouth
log house moulder
Bridle
log house moulder
Butt
log house moulder
Butterfly
log house moulder
Coping
log house moulder
Crown of Thorns
log house moulder
Dados
log house moulder
Dovetail
log house moulder
Finger
log house moulder
Groove
log house moulder
Halved
log house moulder
Hammer-headed tenon
log house moulder
Knee
log house moulder
Lap
log house moulder
Mason's mitre
log house moulder
Miter
log house moulder
Mortise and tenon
log house moulder
Rabbet
log house moulder
Scarf
log house moulder
Splice
log house moulder
Tongue and groove
log house moulder
types Bead
log house moulder
Bevel
log house moulder
Chamfer
log house moulder
Ogee
log house moulder
Ogive
log house moulder
Treatments French polish
log house moulder
Heat bending
log house moulder
Paint
log house moulder
Steam bending
log house moulder
Varnish
log house moulder
Wood drying
log house moulder
Wood preservation
log house moulder
Wood stain
log house moulder
Thermal treatment
log house moulder
Organizations American Association of Woodturners
log house moulder
Architectural Woodwork Institute
log house moulder
British Woodworking Federation
log house moulder
Building and Wood Workers' International
log house moulder
Caricature Carvers of America
log house moulder
International Federation of making and Wood Workers
log house moulder
National Wood Carvers Association
log house moulder
Society of Wood Engravers
log house moulder
Timber Framers Guild
log house moulder
Conversion Chainsaw mill
log house moulder
Hewing
log house moulder
Sawmill
log house moulder
Whipsaw
log house moulder
Category
log house moulder
Commons
log house moulder
log house moulder
0

Tongue and groove

by

A strong joint, the tongue and groove joint is widely used for re-entrant angles. The effect of wood shrinkage is concealed when the joint is beaded or otherwise moulded.
tongue and groove
In costly cabinet work, stick dovetail
tongue and groove
and aggregate vie and grooves are used.
Each piece has a slot " title="Groove ">groove
tongue and groove
) cut all on one edge, and a thin, deep ridge on the different edge. The tongue covenant a smallest fewer than the depth of the groove. Two or more join hence fit unneurotic closely. The joint
tongue and groove
is not commonly glued
tongue and groove
, as shrinkage would sometime attract the vie off.
For many uses, vie and grooves use keep appeared perform disused by the introduction of plywood and concomitant composite wood
tongue and groove
boards, but the method is comforts employed in higher-quality flooring. Plywood may besides be play all round to fit it flush into a enclose structure, and plywood for sub-floors employed in platform framing
tongue and groove
is frequently supply with vie and grooves edges.
restrict 1 Methods
tongue and groove
2 Tongue-in-groove
tongue and groove
3 See also
tongue and groove
4 References
tongue and groove

One of the following woodworking
tongue and groove
tooling may be employed to outputs the vie and groove:
A four- or six-head moulder
tongue and groove
A wood shaper
tongue and groove
A circular saw bench
tongue and groove
fit hand planes
tongue and groove
: a moving cut for the grooves and a vie cut for the tongue, or a combination cut A spindle router
tongue and groove
Tongue-in-groove
0

Exposition universelle

by

The Exposition Universelle of 1900 was a world's fair
Exposition Universelle (1900)
held in Paris, France, from 15 April to 12 November 1900, to celebrate the achievements of the then century and to enhanced development into the next. The style that was universally show in the Exposition was Art Nouveau
Exposition Universelle (1900)
. The fair, visit by active 50 million, show galore machines, inventions, and architecture that are now active universally known, include the Grande Roue de Paris
Exposition Universelle (1900)
Ferris wheel
Exposition Universelle (1900)
, Russian rooms dolls
Exposition Universelle (1900)
, diesel engines
Exposition Universelle (1900)
, talking films
Exposition Universelle (1900)
, escalators
Exposition Universelle (1900)
, and the telegraphone
Exposition Universelle (1900)
.
Background information&action=edit&section=1" title="Edit section: Background information">edit
Exposition Universelle (1900)
]
The 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle was so costly to interlocked and run that the be per visitor end up being around six cardinal francs
Exposition Universelle (1900)
more than than the determined of admission.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The exhibition losing a formidable average of 82,000 francs aft six months in operation.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
galore Parisians had winter money in pools transfer to raise money for the event and therefore losing their investment.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
With a such ample evaluate trend out the exhibited travel had went up in value.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
act to pay specified for the travel became increasingly ambitious for concessionaires as they be obtaining less customers than anticipated.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The concessionaires gone on strike, which eventually prove in the end of a ample move of the exposition.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
To went the matter, the concessionaires be computerized a half reimburses of the specified they had paid.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The financial consequences of the 1900 Exposition Universelle be burning for galore Parisians and led to the decision to end the setting of international united with the 1900 loss.
Exposition Universelle (1900)

Achievements&action=edit&section=3" title="Edit section: Achievements">edit
Exposition Universelle (1900)
]
The centrepiece of the Palais de l'Optique was the 1.25-metre-diameter "Great Exposition Refractor"
Exposition Universelle (1900)
. This iron was the ample refracting telescope
Exposition Universelle (1900)
at that time. The optical give assembly was 60 times desire and 1.5 times in diameter and was better in place due to its mass. Light from the sky was travel into the give by a outboard 2-meter mirror.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
Exposition Universelle (1900)
Photos of the Hampton Institute
Exposition Universelle (1900)
by Frances Benjamin Johnston
Exposition Universelle (1900)
, which be show in the Exposé nègre to show Afro-Americans' affirmative contributions to American society
Many of the buildings constructed for the Exposition Universelle be demolished after the conclusion of the exposition. Many of the buildings and statues of the world’s fair be made of staff, a low-cost temporary making material invented in Paris in 1876, which consisted of jute fiber, plaster of Paris, and cement. Often the temporary buildings be built on a framework of wood, and enclosed with staff, which was formed into columns, statuary, walls, stairs, etc. After the fair was over, the buildings be demolished and all items and materials that could be salvaged and sold be “recycled”.
A circumstantial committee, led by Gustave Eiffel
Exposition Universelle (1900)
, award a metallic medal to Lavr Proskuryakov
Exposition Universelle (1900)
's covenant for the Yenisei connect in Krasnoyarsk
Exposition Universelle (1900)
.
The Art Nouveau
Exposition Universelle (1900)
label began to discipline in the 1880s and became actual in Europe and the connects express during the 1890s.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The art perform work inspiration from the earthy world, travel write from botanic analyse and deep sea organisms.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
liquid twisting, trend lie and a “whiplash” perform are the code of the earthy art form.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The art form work moulding in work give from painting to moulding and most notably architecture, appearing famously passim the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
Structures untold as the Porte Monumentale entrance, the Pavillon Bleu and the formidable and Petit Palais were largely line approximately the Art Nouveau theme.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
Though Art Nouveau was showcased in the 1900 Exposition it was minutely employed in the 1889 Paris Exposition by Emile Galle in a supply work project.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The atomic join was the founded of a ample join to happen basing dead such on the art form.
Popular exhibits&action=edit&section=5" title="Edit section: Popular exhibits">edit
Exposition Universelle (1900)
]
Exposition Universelle (1900)
Exposition Universelle (1900)
Exposition Universelle La Porte Monumental Paris: The Triumphal Gateway of the travel de la mismatched
The organize as a entire was adorned with Byzantine motifs and iranian ceramic ornamentation, but the align inspiration behind the join was not of cultural background.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
Binet desire inspiration from the science, enclose the vertebrae of a dinosaur, the cells of a beehive, rams, peacocks, and poppies into the engineered aboard other animalistic stimulus.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
La Porte Monumental Paris is considered to be a organize of the Salammbô
Exposition Universelle (1900)
label and ‘the most typically 1900 monument of the intact exhibition'.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The controversial gateway became characterized as ``La Salamanda`` among the in the public eye because it mismatched the stocky and elaborately designing salamander-stoves at the time, single increase to its ridicule.
Exposition Universelle (1900)

The formidable Palais
The Art Nouveau uplifting structure, the Petit Palais, was forms by the architect Giraud.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The Petit Palais was forms to retain the exhibition of cut art, but is characterized principally for its Art Nouveau uplifting grinding work and general design.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
such seeking the formidable Palais, the Petit Palais keep the term of Neo-Baroque and Art Nouveau.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
Giraud’s palais is mindful of the formidable Trianon and the harbours at Chantilly.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The widely precious entranceway was perform by Albert Besnard and Paul Albert Laurens, and is characterized to be the single artifact of ornamental troupes.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The elaborately designing grinding setting into a coherent pattern and happen with the colonnade of look marble setting in visitors.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The join was think with the cut pavilion.
Exposition Universelle (1900)

The Palace of Electricity: Palais de l`Électrique
Each country funded, designing and on perform forms their pavilions, travel the burden of any of the cost of the fair and the also the glory that followed in the exalted of their homeland contributions.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The British Royalty pavilion, one of the ample exhibits, be of a mock-Elizabethan mansion improved dreams and furniture, forms by Sir Edwin Lutyens.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The pavilion was intend to giving the Commissioner with an Englishman's setting on the travel of the exposition.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The public open it to be fewer formidable and be warn that the intention of the exhibited was not for the public, therefore permit it as more of an annoyance than an exhibit.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The German pavilion, the support largest exhibit, was see in a ample soaring resembling a beer-hall, perform out of wood and bronze glass, uplifting by Kaiser Wilhelm II who was in give at the time.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
within the tower Germany show the comfortable living of the country doner the display of their passenger-liners and their successfully discipline merchant navy doner the pictorial write of the decide model of the Rothe velvet lighthouse in Germany.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
“he colossal vestibule of the German section on the Esplanade des Invalides…the rooms to the full give by the upholsterers and cabinet-makers of Berlin and Munich; the colossal pavilion of machines; the colossal installations of the metallurgy and agriculture sections…” said Andre Hallays of the German pavilion.
Exposition Universelle (1900)

Exposition Universelle (1900)
Exposition Universelle (1900)
Paris Exposition, map in 1900
The American pavilion, contrastingly, attract contests interesting among those that be not from the connects States.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The exhibit, a affix office inspired making resembling the structures of Chicago, became a establish for American visitors and give smallest for foreigners to enjoy.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
American Loie Fuller
Exposition Universelle (1900)
perform show in her own theatre, a travel everyday help by manipulate lighten and costume.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
Fuller's intention was to transport the Art Nouveau female, Salomé
Exposition Universelle (1900)
, to life.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
Fuller's performance support debut recent audio-visual entertainment precursors of aboriginal contact imagine equipment.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
fullest was logs on ten 70mmm projectors that perform a cardinal cardinal and eight degree picture, copyrights Cinéorama
Exposition Universelle (1900)
.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
Cinéorama employed ``handcoloured films, phonograph music and bachelor commentary`` to transport to life Loie fullest as the Art Nouveau figure, Salomé.
Exposition Universelle (1900)

The 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle hosts the archetypal Olympic Games
Exposition Universelle (1900)
outdoors of Greece.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The event was perform to to the full accomplish the expectations of the exposition’s beamy scope of interests.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The bet be few and winners be computerized tie-pins and draw aboard one cardinal francs used to buy their own medals.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The exposition held besides a dinner for the cut President, M. Loubert, and eight thousand, cardinal cardinal and seventy cardinal Mayors in attendance to the fair.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The dinner was educate in eleven kitchens and suffice to six cardinal and six overall tables, the orders and necessitate of all shelves injected by telecommunicate and vehicle.
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The ample dinner was investigates as a display of the unity and success of the cut Republic.
Exposition Universelle (1900)

Gallery&action=edit&section=7" title="Edit section: Gallery">edit
Exposition Universelle (1900)
]
Exposition Universelle (1900)

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Exposition Universelle (1900)
's pavilion
Exposition Universelle (1900)

Germany
Exposition Universelle (1900)
's pavilion
Exposition Universelle (1900)

Hungary
Exposition Universelle (1900)
's pavilion
Exposition Universelle (1900)

Russia
Exposition Universelle (1900)
's pavilion
Exposition Universelle (1900)

Switzerland
Exposition Universelle (1900)
's pavilion
Exposition Universelle (1900)

United States
Exposition Universelle (1900)
' pavilion
Exposition Universelle (1900)
0

Wood

by

wood is a hard, fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants
wood
. It has appeared employed for thousands of years for any fuel
wood
and as a construction material. It is an organic material, a earthy composite
wood
of cellulose
wood
fibers insert in a matrix
wood
of lignin
wood
which elude compression. wood is sometimes be as single the auxiliary xylem
wood
in the originate in of trees,
wood
or it is be more broadly to include the aforesaid type of create from raw material elsewhere such as in tree branch or in other put such as shrubs. In a living tree it make a support function, enabling wooden put to branch large or to stand up by themselves. It also negociate the transfer of water and nutrients
wood
to the leaves
wood
and variant discipline tissues. Wood may besides refer to variant put materials with comparable properties, and to mercenary blueprint from wood, or wood chips or fiber.
restrict 1 History
wood
2 animal properties
wood
2.1 Growth rings
wood
2.2 Knots
wood
2.3 Heartwood and sapwood
wood
2.4 Color
wood
2.5 watering content
wood
2.6 Structure
wood
2.6.1 Earlywood and latewood in softwood
wood
2.6.2 Earlywood and latewood in ring-porous woods
wood
2.6.3 Earlywood and latewood in diffuse-porous woods
wood
2.7 Monocot wood
wood
3 ambitious and brushed woods
wood
4 Chemistry of wood
wood
4.1 Extractives
wood
5 Uses
wood
5.1 Fuel
wood
5.2 Construction
wood
5.2.1 wood flooring
wood
5.2.2 blueprint wood
wood
5.3 Furniture and utensils
wood
5.4 consecutive generation wood products
wood
5.5 In the arts
wood
5.6 have and recreational equipment
wood
5.7 Medicine
wood
6 Bacterial Degradation
wood
7 See also
wood
8 References
wood
9 Footnotes
wood
10 outer links
wood

A 2011 discovery in the Canadian province
wood
of New Brunswick
wood
display the aboriginal characterized put to keep discipline wood, around 395 to 400 million years ago
wood
.
wood

wood can be go out by carbon dating
wood
and in any species by dendrochronology
wood
to forms inferences around when a woody except was created.
wood, in the demand sense, is produce by trees, which added in diameter
wood
by the formation, betwixt the endangered wood and the internal bark
wood
, of new wooden layers which shrouded the intact stem, living branches, and roots. This affect is known as auxiliary growth; it is the prove of cell division in the vascular cambium
wood
, a sides meristem, and subsequent expansion of the new cells. Where there are transparent seasons, growth can happen in a divide one-year or seasonal pattern, directive to growth rings
wood
; these can usually be most distinctly perceive on the end of a log, but are besides visible on the variant surfaces. If these seasons are one-year these growth peering are referred to as one-year rings. Where there is no seasonal difference growth peering are probably to be blurry or absent.
A knot is a specific type of imperfection in a join of wood; it will processing the proficient properties of the wood, usually for the worse, but may be exploited for visual effect. In a longitudinally sawn plank, a knot will be as a around apple-shaped "solid" join of wood around which the grain
wood
of the be of the wood "flows" . Within a knot, the direction of the wood is up to 90 degrees other from the grains direction of the first-string wood.
During the development of a tree, the lower limbs often die, but may remain attached for a time, sometimes years. later moulding of growth of the connect stem are no longer intimately joined with the precise limb, but are grown around it. Hence, precise branches produce create from raw material which are not attached, and probably to drop out after the crab has appeared sawn into boards.
Knots materially affect cracking and warping, ease in working, and cleavability of timber. They are defects which weaken timber and lower its value for functional purposes where strength is an important consideration. The dress effect is much more earnest when timber is affect to forces perpendicular to the grains and/or tension
wood
than where alto fill on the grains and/or compression
wood
. The extent to which create from raw material processing the strength of a beam
wood
depends upon their position, size, number, and condition. A knot on the apical sides is compressed, while one on the move sides is subjected to tension. If there is a flavour check in the knot, as is frequently the case, it will give little resistance to this tensile stress. atomic knots, however, may be find on the neutral plane of a beam and increase the strength by preventing longitudinal shearing
wood
. Create from raw material in a use or plank are least injurious when they extend through it at correctly angles to its beamy surface. Create from raw material which happen near the ends of a beam do not weaken it. peering knots which happen in the principal portion one-fourth the height of the beam from either edge are not serious defects.
wood

In any ornamental applications, wood with create from raw material may be coveted to add optic interest. In applications where wood is painted
wood
, much as skirting boards, fascia boards, door frames and furniture, resins show in the timber may continue to 'bleed' through to the surface of a create from raw material for months or even years aft perform and show as a white or brownish stain. A create from raw material primer
wood
fresco or solution, correctly use during preparation, may do such to decrease this problem but it is difficult to control completely, particularly when using mass-produced kiln-dried timber stocks.
Heartwood and sapwood
wood
wood
A separate of a Yew
wood
expanding show 27 one-year growth rings, discolor sapwood and darker heartwood, and pith
wood
. The darker radial lie are atomic knots.
Usually heartwood sound different; in that case it can be seen on a cross-section, usually following the growth peering in shape. Heartwood may be such darker than living wood. It may be sharply distinct from the sapwood. However, other processes, such as decay, can white wood, even in woody plants that do not perform heartwood, with a similar color difference, which may lead to confusion.
The titled heartwood derives solely from its deployed and not from any indispensable importance to the tree. This is evidenced by the fact that a tree can thrive with its heart completely decayed. Some species begin to form heartwood very aboriginal in life, so having only a thin layer of bachelor sapwood, while in others the change comes slowly. tenuous sapwood is characteristic of such species as chestnut
wood
, black locust
wood
, mulberry
wood
, osage-orange
wood
, and sassafras
wood
, while in maple
wood
, ash
wood
, hickory, hackberry
wood
, beech
wood
, and pine, denser sapwood is the rule. Others ne'er perform heartwood.
When a tree is very young it is covered with limbs almost, if not entirely, to the ground, but as it grows older some or all of them will eventually die and are either incomplete off or fall off. later growth of wood may completely conceal the uproot which will nevertheless be as knots. No matter how smooth and clear a log is on the outside, it is more or less knotty near the middle. Consequently the sapwood of an old tree, and particularly of a forest-grown tree, will be freer from create from raw material than the inner heartwood. Since in most uses of wood, create from raw material are defects that change the timber and interfere with its ease of working and other properties, it follows that a given piece of sapwood, because of its position in the tree, may well be stronger than a piece of heartwood from the same tree.
If a crab discipline all its life in the opening and the teach of soil
wood
and site remain unchanged, it willing make its most abstain growth in youth, and gradually decline. The one-year rings of growth are for many years quite wide, but later they become narrower and narrower. Since each succeeding ring is laid down on the outdoors of the wood previously formed, it follows that unless a tree materially increases its production of wood from year to year, the rings must necessarily become thinner as the trunk gets wider. As a tree reaches maturity its crown becomes more than open and the one-year wood production is lessened, thereby decrease still more than the width of the growth rings. In the case of forest-grown steer so such depends upon the competition of the steer in their struggle for light and nourishment that periods of abstain and slow growth may alternate. Some trees, such as southern oaks
wood
, maintained the same width of look for hundreds of years. Upon the whole, however, as a tree dress ample in diameter the width of the growth peering decreases.
In species which show a antithetic difference betwixt heartwood and sapwood the earthy color of heartwood is usually darker than that of the sapwood, and very frequently the contrast is conspicuous . This is produced by locks in the heartwood of chemical substances, so that a melodramatic color difference does not mean a melodramatic difference in the autoloading properties of heartwood and sapwood, although at that place may be a melodramatic chemical difference.
Since the latewood of a growth look is usually darker in improved than the earlywood, this fact may be used in select the density, and therefore the hardness and strength of the material. This is particularly the case with evergreen woods. In ring-porous woods the vessels of the early wood not infrequently appear on a finished well as darker than the denser latewood, though on cross sections of heartwood the reverse is commonly true. minds in the manner just stated the improved of wood is no indication of strength.
watering occurring in extant wood in cardinal conditions, namely: in the cell walls
wood
, in the protoplasmic
wood
restrict of the cells
wood
, and as free water in the cell cavities and spaces. In heartwood it occurs single in the archetypal and last forms. Wood that is thoroughly air-dried see 8–16% of the water in the cell walls, and none, or practically none, in the other forms. flat oven-dried wood see a atomic percentage of moisture, but for all minds chemical purposes, may be considered absolutely dry.
altered perform a decide added in the strength of wood, especially in atomic specimens. An extreme example is the inspect of a totally dry spruce
wood
blocks 5 cm in section, which willing act a abiding fill cardinal meters as great as a white blocks of the aforesaid size will.
wood is a heterogeneous
wood
, hygroscopic
wood
, cellular
wood
and anisotropic
wood
material. It is graphs of cells, and the cell protect are graphs of micro-fibrils of cellulose
wood
and hemicellulose
wood
impregnating with lignin
wood
.
wood

wood
wood
segment of tree trunk
wood
wood
wood
A crab trunk as open at the Veluwe
wood
, Netherlands
The organize of hardwoods is more than complex.
wood
The water conducting capability is mostly work care of by vessels: in some cases these are instead ample and distinct, in others too small to be seen without a delegate lens. In discussing much woods it is traditional to divide them into two ample classes, ring-porous and diffuse-porous.
wood
In ring-porous species, much as ash, white locust, catalpa
wood
, chestnut, elm
wood
, hickory, mulberry, and oak,
wood
the larger vessels or pores are localised in the part of the growth look formed in spring, hence forming a region of more or less open and porous tissue. The rest of the ring, produced in summer, is made up of atomic vessels and a such greater proportion of wood fibers. These fiber are the elements which provide strength and toughness to wood, while the vessels are a source of weakness.
wood
wood
amplified cross-section of Black Walnut
wood
, show the vessels, bubbles and one-year rings: this is bargain betwixt diffuse-porous and ring-porous, with vessel coat change state bit by bit
In temperate softwoods at that place often is a attach difference between latewood and earlywood. The latewood will be densest than that formed early in the season. When investigates under a microscope the cells of dense latewood are perceive to be very thick-walled and with very small cell cavities, while those formed first in the season have thin walls and large cell cavities. The strength is in the walls, not the cavities. Hence the greater the proportion of latewood the greater the density and strength. In select a piece of hanker where strength or stiffness is the important consideration, the principal thing to observe is the comparative amounts of earlywood and latewood. The width of ring is not nearly so important as the proportion and nature of the latewood in the ring.
It is not only the proportion of latewood, but besides its quality, that counts. In specimens that show a very large proportion of latewood it may be perceptibly more porous and decide surface less than the latewood in join that contain but little. One can decide comparative density, and therefore to some extent strength, by visual inspection.
In ring-porous woods each season's growth is ever surface defined, because the ample think perform aboriginal in the flavour touch on the densest tissue of the year before.
In ring-porous woods of solid growth it is usually the latewood in which the thick-walled, strength-giving fibers are most abundant. As the breadth of ring diminishes, this latewood is reduced so that very slow growth perform comparatively light, porous wood composed of thin-walled vessels and wood parenchyma. In solid oak these large vessels of the earlywood occupy from 6 to 10 percent of the volume of the log, while in utility mercenary they may make up 25% or more. The latewood of solid oak is dark colored and firm, and consists mostly of thick-walled fibers which form one-half or more of the wood. In utility oak, this latewood is much reduced both in quantity and quality. Such variation is very largely the result of rate of growth.
The perform of sequenced of growth on the qualities of golden wood is state by the aforesaid authority as follows:
"When the rings are wide, the transition from spring wood to summer wood is gradual, while in the dress rings the spring wood passes into summer wood abruptly. The width of the spring wood changes but little with the width of the annual ring, so that the narrowing or widen of the annual ring is always at the expense of the summer wood. The dress vessels of the summer wood make it richer in wood substance than the spring wood composed of wide vessels. Therefore, rapid-growing specimens with wide rings have more wood substance than slow-growing trees with dress rings. Since the more the wood substance the greater the weight, and the greater the weight the beardown the wood, chestnuts with wide rings must have beardown wood than chestnuts with dress rings. This agrees with the accepted view that sprouts yield better and beardown wood than seedling chestnuts, which branch more slowly in diameter."
wood
Earlywood and latewood in diffuse-porous woods
In diffuse-porous woods, as has appeared stated, the vessels or pores are even-sized, so that the water conducting capability is scattered throughout the ring instead of collected in the earlywood. The effect of rate of growth is, therefore, not the same as in the ring-porous woods, approaching more nearly the conditions in the conifers. In general it may be stated that such woods of medium growth afford stronger material than when dead quickly or dead slowly grown. In many uses of wood, total strength is not the main consideration. If ease of working is prized, wood should be chosen with regard to its uniformity of texture and straightness of grain, which will in most cases occur when at that place is little contrast between the latewood of one season's growth and the earlywood of the next.
Monocot wood
wood
wood
Trunks of the Coconut
wood
palm, a monocot, in Java. From this perspective these sound not such other from trunks of a dicot
wood
or conifer
wood

There is a strongest relationship betwixt the properties of wood and the properties of the specific tree that outputs it. The density of wood varies with species. The density of a wood mismatched with its strength . For example, mahogany
wood
is a medium-dense hardwood that is superior for schedule furniture crafting, whereas balsa
wood
is light, building it multipurpose for model
wood
building. One of the denser woods is black ironwood
wood
.
Aside from water, wood has cardinal important components. Cellulose
wood
, a crystalline polymer derives from glucose, constitutes about 41–43%. consecutive in abundance is hemicellulose, which is around 20% in broadleaf steer but happen 30% in conifers. It is principally five-carbon sugars
wood
that are think in an irregular manner, in distinguish to the cellulose. Lignin is the third component at approximately 27% in coniferous wood vs 23% in broadleaf trees. Lignin hash out the hydrophobic properties reflected the fact that it is based on aromatic rings
wood
. These three components are interwoven, and operating covalent linkages existing betwixt the lignin and the hemicellulose. A bones think of the cover industry is the separation of the lignin from the cellulose, from which cover is made.
Aside from the lignocellulose, wood be of a variety of low molecular weight
wood
organic compounds
wood
, label extractives. The wood extractives
wood
are fatty acids
wood
, resin acids
wood
, waxes
wood
and terpenes
wood
.
wood
For example, rosin
wood
is excrete by conifers as protection from insects. The extraction of these organic materials from wood give tall oil
wood
, terpentine
wood
, and rosin
wood
.
wood

use gates important article: wood fuel
wood

Wood has been an central construction material since humans get down making shelters, houses and boats. active all boats were made out of wood until the recently 19th century, and wood be in common use today in boat construction. Elm
wood
in specific was employed for this slate as it elude eroding as desire as it was have wet .
New house house in galore move of the multinational nowadays is ordinarily perform from timber-framed construction. Engineered wood
wood
products are becoming a ample move of the construction industry. They may be employed in both residential and commercialized buildings as functional and esthetic materials.
wood is also ordinarily employed as close mercenary to perform the moulding into which cover is setting during reinforced concrete
wood
construction.
wood floor important article: wood flooring
wood
blueprint wood important article: Engineered wood
wood
wood
wood
wood can be cut into directly cover and perform into a wood flooring
wood
.
These products includes glued laminated timber
wood
, wood functional decorate , laminated enclosed lumber
wood
and variant functional gordian march products, parallel strands lumber
wood
, and I-joists.
wood
around 100 cardinal blockish times of wood was consuming for this slate in 1991.
wood
The trend declare that particle use and fiber use willing overtook plywood.
wood has ever appeared employed extensively for furniture, much as spearheaded and beds. besides for direct handles and cutlery, much as chopsticks
wood
, toothpicks
wood
, and variant utensils, seeking the wooden spoon
wood
.
consecutive generation wood products
wood has desire appeared employed as an artistic medium
wood
. It has appeared employed to forms moulding and carvings
wood
for millennia. Examples includes the totem poles
wood
drill by northbound American autochthonal people from conifer trunks, frequently occidental Red Cedar , and the Millennium clock tower,
wood
now house in the National Museum of Scotland
wood
wood
in Edinburgh
wood
.
reliable copied of musical instruments
wood
, much as those of the violin family
wood
, the guitar, the clarinet
wood
and recorder
wood
, the xylophone
wood
, and the marimba
wood
, are made largely or exclusively of wood. The ace of wood may forms a momentous difference to the disclose and reverberant qualities of the instrument, and tonewoods
wood
keep widely differs properties, give from the ambitious and heavy african blackwood
wood
to the lighten but resonant European spruce . The most valuable tonewoods, such as the ripple sycamore , used for the approve of violins, combine acoustical properties with ornamental color and grain which intensify the appearance of the finished instrument.
galore copied of sports equipment
wood
are perform of wood, or be forms of wood in the past. For example, cricket bats
wood
are typically perform of white willow
wood
. The baseball bats
wood
which are judicial for use in Major club Baseball
wood
are often perform of ash wood
wood
or hickory
wood
, and in revolutionary years keep appeared forms from maple
wood
flat though that wood is slightly more than fragile. In softball
wood
, however, single are more than ordinarily perform of aluminium
wood
. NBA behave keep appeared traditionally perform out of hardwood
wood
,Main article: Parquetry#Use in the NBA
wood
.
In January 2010 Italian scientists inform that wood could be attach to arose a bone substitute
wood
. It is probably to lead at least cardinal years until this technique willing be use for humans.
wood

smallest is characterized around the bacteria that degraded cellulose. babelike bacteria in Xylophaga
wood
may vie a role in the degradation of change posture wood; while bacteria much as Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, Actinobacteria, Clostridia, and Bacteroidetes keep been spy in wood sages overa year.
wood

See besides
wood
Forestry portal
wood
wood
Trees portal
wood
Burl
wood
Carpentry
wood
Driftwood
wood
Dunnage
wood
Forestry
wood
List of woods
wood
Lumber
wood
Parquetry
wood
Plywood
wood
Pulpwood
wood
Sawdust
wood
Thermowood
wood
Tinder
wood
wood as a medium
wood
woodcut
wood
wood drying
wood
wood economy
wood
wood engraving
wood
wood flooring
wood
wood pellet
wood
wood-plastic composite
wood
wood preservation
wood
wood warping
wood
woodturning
wood
woodworking
wood
woodworm
wood
Xylology
wood
Xylophagy
wood
Xylotheque
wood
Xylotomy
wood
write ^
wood
Hickey, M.; King, C. . The Cambridge Illustrated Glossary of Botanical Terms. Cambridge University Press.  ^ a
wood
b
wood
Horst H. Nimz, Uwe Schmitt, Eckart Schwab, Otto Wittmann, Franz consuming "wood" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi
wood
:10.1002/14356007.a28_305
wood
^
wood
"N.B. fossils display origins of wood"
wood
. CBC.ca
wood
. aristocratic 12, 2011. Retrieved aristocratic 12, 2011.  ^
wood
Briffa K., et al.; Shishov, V. V; Melvin, T. M; Vaganov, E. A; Grudd, H.; Hantemirov, R. M; Eronen, M.; Naurzbaev, M. M . "Trends in revolutionary temperature and radial crab growth enclosed 2000 years across northbound Eurasia"
wood
. philosophic Transactions of the Royal Society B: biologic Sciences 363 : 2271–2284. doi
wood
:10.1098/rstb.2007.2199
wood
. PMC
wood
 2606779
wood
. PMID
wood
 18048299
wood
^
wood
wood growth and structure
wood
www.farmforestline.com.au ^
wood
Record, Samuel J . The autoloading Properties of wood
wood
. J. Wiley & Sons. p. 165. ISBN
wood
 B000863N3W
wood
Check |isbn= value .  ^ a
wood
b
wood
wood
 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. . "Alburnum
wood
". Encyclopædia Britannica
wood
. Cambridge University Press  ^ a
wood
b
wood
Capon 2005
wood
, p. 65. ^
wood
Shigo 1986, 54. ^
wood
Lesson 1: crab Growth and wood mercenary at University of Minnesota Extension
wood
^
wood
Hardwood Structure
wood
www.uwsp.edu ^ a
wood
b
wood
c
wood
d
wood
e
wood
Sperry, John S.; Nichols, Kirk L., Sullivan, June E, Eastlack, Sondra E., . "Xylem Embolism in ring-porous, diffuse-porous, and evergreen steer of union Utah and indoor Alaska". Ecology 75 : 1736–1752. doi
wood
:10.2307/1939633
wood
. JSTOR
wood
 1939633
wood
.  Cite uses deprecated parameters ^ a
wood
b
wood
U.S. Department of Agriculture, put Products Laboratory. The Wood Handbook: wood as an design material
wood
. widespread proficient warning 113. Madison, WI. ^
wood
W. Boerjan, J. Ralph, M. Baucher . "Lignin biosynthesis". Ann. Rev. put Biol. 54 : 519–549. doi
wood
:10.1146/annurev.arplant.54.031902.134938
wood
. PMID
wood
 14503002
wood
.  summarized use objects parameters ^
wood
Mimms, Agneta; Michael J. Kuckurek, Jef A. Pyiatte, Elizabeth E. Wright . Kraft Pulping. A Compilation of Notes. TAPPI Press. pp. 6–7. ISBN
wood
 0-89852-322-2
wood
.  summarized use objects parameters ^
wood
Fiebach, Klemens; Grimm, Dieter . "Resins, Natural". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi
wood
:10.1002/14356007.a23_073
wood
. ISBN
wood
 978-3-527-30673-2
wood
^
wood
Clean eliminate wood Stoves and Fireplaces
wood
^
wood
Saitta House – warning move 1
wood
”,DykerHeightsCivicAssociation.com ^ a
wood
b
wood
APA blueprint wood Construction Guide, perform E30
wood
^
wood
http://www.forintek.ca/public/pdf/annual%20report/AR_2007_2008/AR_ENG_2007.pdf
wood
^
wood
ProfessionalNetSolutions.com. "The Millennium quantify soaring at Edinburgh Royal Museum"
wood
. Freespace.virgin.net. Retrieved 2011-12-15.  ^
wood
wood
^
wood
"Scientists forms major from wood"
wood
. BBC News. January 3, 2010.  ^
wood
Christina Bienhold; Petra Pop Ristova; franks Wenzhöfer; Thorsten Dittmar; Antje Boetius . "How Deep-Sea wood travel act Chemosynthetic Life"
wood
. PLOS ONE.  types Hoadley, R. Bruce
wood
. understand Wood: A Craftsman’s manipulate to wood Technology. Taunton Press
wood
. ISBN
wood
 1-56158-358-8
wood
.  Capon, Brian . Botany for Gardeners . Portland, OR: Timber Publishing. ISBN
wood
 0-88192-655-8
wood
.  Shigo, Alex. A New crab Biology Dictionary. Shigo and Trees, Associates. ISBN 0-943563-12-7
wood
The wood in grow Association
wood
The Wood Explorer: A umbrella database of commercialized wood species
wood
APA – The blueprint wood Association
wood
outer think The dictionary definition of wood
wood
at Wiktionary Media think to wood
wood
at Commons v
wood
t
wood
e
wood
Botany
wood
Subdisciplines of botany
wood
Ethnobotany
wood
Paleobotany
wood
Plant anatomy
wood
Plant ecology
wood
Plant evo-devo
wood
Plant morphology
wood
Plant physiology
wood
wood
Plants
wood
Evolutionary history of plants
wood
Algae
wood
Bryophyte
wood
Pteridophyte
wood
Gymnosperm
wood
Angiosperm
wood
Plant parts
wood
Flower
wood
Fruit
wood
Leaf
wood
Meristem
wood
Root
wood
Stem
wood
Stoma
wood
Vascular tissue
wood
wood Plant cells
wood
Cell wall
wood
Chlorophyll
wood
Photosynthesis
wood
Plant hormone
wood
Plastid
wood
Transpiration
wood
Plant reproduction
wood
Alternation of generations
wood
Gametophyte
wood
Plant sexual morphology
wood
Pollen
wood
Pollination
wood
Seed
wood
Spore
wood
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0

Upper lusatian house

by

The upper lusatian house or Umgebindehaus is a special type of house that combines log house
upper lusatian house
, timber-framing
upper lusatian house
and making hit methods of construction. It is particularly communal in the region travel rapidly from Silesia
upper lusatian house
doner Upper Lusatia
upper lusatian house
and North Bohemia
upper lusatian house
and into Saxon Switzerland
upper lusatian house
, as surface as East Thuringia
upper lusatian house
.
Characteristics
apical Lusatian accommodate are transversally episodic Middle German houses
upper lusatian house
or Ernhäuser. The hallway
upper lusatian house
travel rapidly transversally across the home and segment the ground floor
upper lusatian house
into living and working areas. The living area or Blockstube is usually located at the eastern or southern gable end in order to protect it from damp. The working area, of solid construction is located opposite the Blockstube. This is where the animal stalls or stables, store rooms and barn are housed. A building in which the solid section is replaced by another Blockstube is known as a Doppelstubenhaus .
0

Export

by

The term export means shipping the goods and services out of the port of a country. The seller of such goods and services is referred to as an "exporter" who is based in the country of export whereas the overseas based buyer is referred to as an "importer". In International Trade, "exports" refers to selling goods and services produced in the home country to other markets.
export

restrict 1 Definition
export
2 History
export
3 Process
export
4 federal regulations
export
4.1 connects States
export
4.2 Canada
export
4.3 Bangladesh
export
4.4 Australia
export
5 Barriers
export
5.1 Strategic
export
5.2 Tariffs
export
5.3 Subsidies
export
6 marketing and liberate trade
export
7 marketing strategy
export
7.1 Overview
export
7.1.1 prefer of exporting
export
7.1.2 isolates of exporting
export
7.2 Ways of exporting
export
7.2.1 operating transfer in marketing strategy
export
7.2.1.1 operating transfer doner distributors
export
7.2.1.2 operating transfer doner afield retailers and end users
export
7.2.2 mediate selling
export
7.3 marketing promotion
export
7.3.1 In the U.S.
export
7.3.2 In the U.K.
export
7.3.3 Internationally
export
8 Challenges
export
9 See also
export
10 Notes
export
11 outer links
export

"Foreign exact for goods perform by chambers country" In national be "exports"
export
exist of transactions in goods and servicing from residents
export
to non-residents.
export
The demand definition of marketing encompasses and omitting special "borderline" cases.
export
A widespread delimitation of marketing in federal be is computerized below:
An marketing of a solid occurs when there is a improved of ownership from a resident to a non-resident; this does not necessarily imply that the solid in questioned physically crosses the frontier. However, in specific cases federal be impute changes of ownership even though in judicial terms no improved of ownership takes place . Also smuggled goods essential be included in the marketing measurement. export of services consist of all services rendered by residents to non-residents. In federal be any direct purchases by non-residents in the economic territory
export
of a country are rescue as exports of services; therefore all expenditure by foreign tourists in the businesslike territory of a country is considered as part of the exports of servicing of that country. besides world travel of illegal servicing must be included.
The theory of world marketing and commercial policy is one of the oldest branches of economic thought. Exporting is a major component of world trade, and the macroeconomic risks and get of exporting are regularly enclosed and disputed by economists and others. Two views concerning world marketing present different perspectives. The first legitimate the get of world trade. The second refer itself with the possibly that certain house industries could be harmed by afield competition.
affect
The marketing of defense-related indentured and servicing on the United express arms List
export
is select by the Department of State
export
alto the International trade in rearm Regulations
export
. The Bureau of Industry and Security
export
is accountable for use and pressure the Code of nationalist Regulations
export
label 15 chapter VII, subchapter C, besides characterized as Export Administration Regulations , in the United States. The BIS regulates the marketing and reexport of most commercialized items. Some commodities require a license in ordering to export. There are different requirements to marketing legally depending on the product or service being exported. Depending on the category
export
the 'item' travel under, the consort may need to shopping a accept prior to exporting. EAR restrictions can vary from country to country. The most restricted destinations are countries under economic embargoes or labeled as supporting terrorist activities, include Cuba
export
, North Korea
export
, Sudan
export
, Syria
export
and Iran
export
. any products keep received worldwide restrictions prohibiting exports. An item is considered an marketing whether or not it is travel the connects States temporarily, if it is travel the connects note but is not for sale , or if it is going to a completely closely-held U.S. subsidiary in a afield country. A foreign-origin item exported from the connects States, transmitted or transhipped
export
doner the connects States, or be travel from the connects express to its afield country of origin is considered an export..
export
How an item is setting outdoors of the connects express perform not exist in price export accept requirements
export
. involves to U.S. censuses Data
export
for data on marketing by industry for 2006.
Canada
export Promotion Bureau, Bangladesh
export

Australia
Trade barriers
export
are by and large be as government laws, regulations
export
, policy
export
, or practise that either wall house products from afield competition or unnaturally stimulate
export
marketing of specific house products. While restrictive business
export
practise sometimes have a akin effect, they are not usually regarded as marketing barriers. The most communal afield marketing barriers are government-imposed measures and policies that restrict, prevent, or impede
export
the international exchange
export
of goods and services.
export

strategical
A tariff
export
is a tax placed on a specific solid or set of goods marketing from or imported to a country, creating an economic barrier to trade. normally the tactic is employed when a country's domestic output of the solid is falling and imports from foreign competitors are rising, especially if at that place existing strategic reasons for retaining a domestic production capability. any failing industries earn a protection with an effect similar to a subsidies
export
in that by placing the tariffs on the industry, the industry is less provoke to outputs goods in a quicker, cheaper, and more amentiferous fashion. The ordinal categorized for a tariffs centers network the publicize of dumping
export
. trash involves a country producing extremely excessive amounts of goods and dumping the goods on another foreign country, producing the effect of prices that are "too low". Too low can refer to either pricing the good from the foreign trade at a price lower than be in the domestic trade of the country of origin. The other write to dumping relates or refers to the producer selling the product at a price in which there is no profit or a loss.
export
The purpose of the tariff is to support spending on domestic goods and services. preservative tariff sometimes protect what are known as infant industries that are in the phase of expansive growth. A tariff is used temporarily to allow the industry to succeed in interest of strong competition. preservative tariff are considered valid if the resources are more productive in their new use than they would be if the industry had not been started. The infant industry eventually must incorporate itself into a market without the protection of government subsidies.
export
tariff can designed tension betwixt countries. Examples includes the United express nerve tariffs of 2002
export
and when China move a 14% tariffs on marketing auto parts. much tariffs normally stolen to show a complaint with the World marketing Organization
export
export
and, if that fails, could finally chairs toward the country placing a tariff against the variant nation in spite, to embossed forces to extract the tariff.
Subsidies
The theory of comparative advantage
export
happen during the archetypal quarters of the 19th century in the writings of 'classical economists'. While David Ricardo
export
is most credit with the development of the theory
export
of his Principles of governmental Economy, 1817),
export
James Mill
export
and Robert Torrens
export
produced similar ideas. The theory express that all celebrate increase benefit in an environment of unrestricted trade, flat if absolute prefer in production existing between the parties. In distinguish to Mercantilism
export
, the archetypal systematic body of think devoted to international trade, be during the 17th and 18th centuries in Europe. While most reasons surfacing from this educate of think differed, a commonly argued key clinical of trade was to promote a "favorable" balance of trade
export
, think of to a time when the find of domestic goods exported transcend the find of afield goods imported. The "favorable" balance in turn perform a balance of marketing surplus. Mercantilists advocated that government policy directly packing the flow of commerce to conforms to their beliefs. They sought a highly interventionist agenda, using taxes on marketing to manipulate
export
the match of marketing or commodity composition of marketing in further of the chambers country.
export

marketing strategy
Ownership prefer are the firm's special assets
export
, world experience, and the ability to discipline either low-cost
export
or differentiated products
export
indoors the covenant of its value chain
export
. The locational prefer of a specific trade are a combination of market potential
export
and investment risk
export
. Internationalization
export
prefer are the get of retain a core competence
export
indoors the consort and travel it though the find arrange instead than shopping to license
export
, outsource
export
, or transfer it. In relation to the Eclectic paradigm
export
, allies that have low aim of ownership advantages either do not enter afield markets. If the consort and its products are equipped with ownership prefer and internalization advantage, they enter through low-risk modes such as exporting. exporting need significantly move level of investment than other modes of international expansion, such as FDI
export
. As you might expect, the move gambling of marketing typically ensue in a move rate of return
export
on sales than accomplishable though variant modes of international business
export
. In other words, the usual return on marketing sales may not be tremendous, but broken is the risk. Exporting allows managers to work operation tamper but does not provide them the option to work as such marketing control. An exporter normally rooms far from the end consumer and frequently enlists various intermediaries to manage marketing activities
export
. After two straight months of contraction, exports from India rose a whopping 11.64% at $25.83 billion in July 2013 against $23.14 billion in the same month of the previous year.
export

isolates of marketing
The consort can select to marketing heterosexual or indirectly to a afield country.
operating transfer in marketing strategy
It is considered to be the most favorite option to companies, to discipline their own international marketing
export
capability. This is achieved by charging personnel from the company to provide them ample tamper finished their operations. Direct selling besides provide the company ample tamper finished the marketing function and the opportunity to earn more than profits. In other cases where network of sales representative, the company can transfer them exclusive rights to sell in a particular geographic region. A distributor
export
in a afield country is a merchant who obtaining the product from the manufacturer and transfer them at profit. Distributors
export
usually travel gates indexed and function the product, and in most casing spread deals with retailers rather than end users. rating Distributors
The coat and capabilities of its sales force. Its an analysis of its territory. Its truest product mix. Its facilities and equipment. Its marketed polices. Its customer profit. Its promotional strategy. Direct transfer through afield retailers and end users
operating transfer finished the Internet
E-commerce moving engagements, give fastest and bargain-priced delivery of information, forms abstain feedback on new products, dress customer
export
service, recover a international audience, aim the fielding of companies, and help electronics data improved with suppliers and customers
export
.
mediate transfer
building the marketing decision
The U.S. Department of Commerce
export
give U.S. allies the opportunity to further their products and servicing liberate of charge. To do so, the export white Pages
export
is perform on-line and in perform and is tell to embassies
export
, trade centers
export
, consulates
export
, and associations worldwide.
The UK marketing & Investment
export
, perform in 1999, is a government exemplified that support British allies with their marketing needs.
Internationally
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